Abnormality

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  • Created by: Sarah
  • Created on: 20-04-14 16:14
Explain 'deviation from the social norm' as a definition for abnormality.
Norms are unwritten rules about how we behave and is decided by society, abnormal behaviour is one that doesn't fit the social norm.
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Explain 'failure to function adequately' as a definition for abnormality.
Focuses on every day behaviour of individuals - when they cannot cope with everyday life they are failing to function adequately - this is a sign of a problem and not a specific disorder.
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Explain 'deviation from ideal mental health' as a definition for abnormality.
Aims to define a state of mental health: Johoda lists characteristics such as empathy, coping with stress, high self esteem, sense of identity and personal growth.
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How does the behavioural approach explain abnormality?
classical conditioning means two stimuli are paired together to bring about a response, operant conditioning means behaviour is shaped through consequences by positive and negative reinforcement.
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How does the cognitive approach explain abnormality?
Beck's negative triad suggests perception of self, world and future are skewed.
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How does the biological approach explain abnormality?
There is abnormality in genetics, hormones or brain structure.
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How does the psychodynamic approach explain abnormality?
There is a fault in the unconscious mind e.g. getting stuck in one of the psychosexual stages (oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital) or using a defence mechanism such as repression too much.
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Evaluate the behavioural explanation of abnormality.
Evidence from animals and Little Albert, treatments based on this work, deterministic, reductionist, explains phobias best.
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Evaluate the cognitive explanation of abnormality.
Includes individual differences, evidence of treatment (CBT) deterministic.
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Evaluate biological explanations of abnormality.
Problem identifying genes, limited samples, can look at concordance rates, problems with causality, reductionist, deterministic.
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Evaluate the psychodynamic explanations of abnormality.
Difficult to test, therapy based partly on this, largely theoretical, deterministic.
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What drugs can be used to treat abnormality - how do these work?
Antipsychotic drugs block dopamine neurotransmitter to stop hallucinations in Sz sufferers, anti depressants block transporter mechanisms so that more serotonin is left in the synapse, anti anxiety drugs enhance action of GABA and reduce serotonin.
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Evaluate the use of drugs to treat abnormality.
They do work, cheap, readily available, work well with other therapies, there are side effects, risk of dependency, over prescribed.
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How does psychoanalysis work?
Free association - pt expresses thoughts, designed to reveal areas of conflict. Therapist interpretation - drawing conclusions about possible causes. Working through - issues are examined over and over again in an attempt to gain greater clarity.
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Evaluate psychoanalysis.
80% of 10000 pts benefit, the longer the treatment the better the outcome, if Freud's theory is flawed then so is the therapy, 'false memories,' forced termination can be harmful.
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Name some behavioural/learning therapies.
Systematic desensitisation, flooding, aversion therapy, and token economy.
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How does Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy work?
It is based on the ABC model - where the client and therapist identify certain situations and the reactions they produce. A more realistic perspective is offered to challenge the pts beliefs. This aims to correct dysfunctional thoughts.
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Evaluate Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy.
Treats the cause, effective for depression and anxiety, benefits last longer than drugs, helps coping with severe disorders, ignores biological factors, limited time, drugs and CBT are equally effective in treating social anxiety.
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Card 2

Front

Explain 'failure to function adequately' as a definition for abnormality.

Back

Focuses on every day behaviour of individuals - when they cannot cope with everyday life they are failing to function adequately - this is a sign of a problem and not a specific disorder.

Card 3

Front

Explain 'deviation from ideal mental health' as a definition for abnormality.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How does the behavioural approach explain abnormality?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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How does the cognitive approach explain abnormality?

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