abnormality

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define- deviation from social norms
deviation from implicit rules about how we 'ought' to behave. anything that violates these rules is abnormal
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whatv are the three evaluation points for devation from social norms?
culture relaativism- only judge the bahviour from the culure it originates from. Context at which behaviour is judged. and socail norms change with time
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what is the definition of failure ot function properly?
if you are no longer able to function properly and complete your normal day to day life, you may be considered abnormal
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what are the three evaluation points of the definition of failure to function
culture relativism, who judes and is the bahviour adaptive or maladaptive
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what is the definition is deviation from ideal mental health?
if you have absence of any of these signals, self attitude, personal growth, integration, automy, having accurate perception of reality and mastery of the environment. absence of these means your abnormal.
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whatis the evaultion pints for deviation from ideal mental health
who acheives all the ideal criteia, so how many need to be lacking before you a abnorml. 2. comparisons of mental and physical health... can we compare the two 3. cultural relativism
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what is the main assumption of the behaviourist approtch?
the main assumption is that all behaviour abnormal or normal is learnt
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what are the three explanations?
1. classical conditioning 2. opernant conditioning 3. social learning theory
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what is classical conditioning?
learning through assosiation for example little albert
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what is opernant conditioning?
when we learn through reinforcment- positive, negative reinforcement and punishment
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what is the social learning theory?
we learn from observing the social context. we observe the behaviour and then imitate what they have done.
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what is negative reinforcment?
the removal of something unpleasent after a behaviour making the behaviour more likley to happen.
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what is positive reinforcment?
the delivery of something pleasent after a behaviour. it makes the behaviour more likely to happen.
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what is punishment?
the delivery of unpleasent behaviour. it will make the behaviour less likely to happen
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what is the name of the behavioural treatment?
systematic desensitisation
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what is systemnatic desensitisation?
a form of therapy used to treat phobias and other behavioural problems involving anxiety. a client is gradually exposed to the threating situation under relaxed conditions until the anxiety reaction is extinguished
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what are the 5 steps of how systematic desensition works?
1. patient thoguht how to relax musscles completley 2. densensition hierachy is made 3. patient works through each step of hierachy 4. moves on after one is matered the one before 5. fear is matered
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what is a desensition hieachy?
a series of imaging scene, each one causing more anxiety that the last
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give an example of a desensitation hierachy of a fear of spiders
1. talk about spiders 2. show images of spiders 3. hold plastic spider4. see real spide in cage 5. hold spider in hands
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what is the main assumption of the biological apprtoch to abnormal behaviour
all behaviour has a physical cause
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what are the main explanations of the biological approtch?
1. genetics 2. biochemistry 3. neurnauntamy
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explain the explanation for geneticfor the biological approtch
we inherit genes from our parents, genes tell the body how to function. they control the levels of hornmones and level or neurotansmitters
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how can we test genetics as an explantion?
using twin studies because they have both the same genes they should in theory have the same abnormality.
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to measure how often two individuals who are related have the same disorder we use a condordance rate- true or false
true
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explant the explanation of biochemistry in the biological approtch and give examples
the chasnge in the level of newurotransmitter can lead to abnormality. for example depression is caused by lack of serotonin and schizophrenia is linked to increase of dopmine
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what is the neurnantomy and example?
the structure and function of the brain- for example twin study shoed one twin who had schzophenia had larger ventricle in one brain that the other
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teu or false are genes control are neurnanutomy and biochemistry?
true
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what are the two trweatments for the biolological approtch?
drug treatment and ECT-
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what are the two drug therapies
antidepresent drugs and antipsychotic drugs
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what are antipsychotic drugs used for?
to treat symptoms of psychotic illness such as schezophrenia
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how do antipsychotic drugs work?
they block the action of dopmine lwoing the levels so the symptoms of schezhphrenia
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what are antidepressent drugs used for?
they releve the symptoms of mood disorders such as depression
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how do antidepressent drugs work?
SSRI'S prolong the action of serotonin at the synapse, relieveing symptoms of depression
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what is the difference between conventials antipsychotic drugs and atypical antipsychotic drugs?
convential- bind to dopamine recpetors without stimulating them atypicl- temperaily bind to recpetors to allow normal transmission of dopamine
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what are the two ways antidepresents work?
work by either reducing the rate of re-absorbtion of neurotransmitters or by blocking the enzymes that breaks down neurotransmitter in the synapse
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wha are the three evaluation points?
effectiveness, ease of use and side effects
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what is the main assumption of the psychodynamic approtch?
assumes that mental disorders have a psychological rather than physical cause
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what are the main explanations of thepsychodynamic approtch?
unresolved conflicts between your ego, ID and superego can cause mental disorders and our early experiences is important in understanding this.
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what is your ID?
pleasure princple, very irrational and is the primitative part of your personality. it is present from birth and demands immediate satifaction
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what is your ego?
reality princlple, rational part of your personality. it devlops at about the age of one as the child learns about the constraits of relaity
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what is your superego?
embodies the soncious and szense of right and wrong. it velops about the age 3-6 years
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what are ego defences?
its the ID, ego and superego are in conflict as they all want you to do different things which cause anxiety
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what are the sfive ego defences?
1.repression 2. projection 3. displacment 4. regression 5. denial
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what is repression?
pushing things into the unconscious
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what is regression?
behaving like a child
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what is projection ?
blaming someone else
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what is displacment?
venting anger elssewhere
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how do childhood experiences affect the psychodynamic?
your ego is not fully develped to deal with a trauma as a child so the trauma gets repressed into your unconcious so the assoiated feelings can be triggered when your older by other situations
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what are the three tecniques used in psychoanalysis
1. free assosiation 2. dream analysis 3. prjective tests
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what is free assosiation?
clieing encourage to express anything that come to mind. ech incident may lead to other thoughts and memories leading back to childhood. cleint must not censor anything so repressed memories are uncovered. therapists only come in to encouage make not
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what is dream analysis?
analysis dreams as fruid belived that dreams are the unconscious material whihc is reflected in the imagery of dreams. the therapists then analyis this to indentify the conflict
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what are the twon assumptions of dream analysis?
1. dreams have an obvious meaning that theclient can recall- manifest content 2. latent content- actual meaning of the dream and can be only understood with a terapist
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what is the projective test?
involve projecting or imposing your own thoughts and feeling into a stimulus materal for example ink blot test. it can revel a pattern of whihc therapists can analysis
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what is the strength of psychoanalysis/
effectiivness-
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what are the weaknessesof psychoanalayis?
lenth of treatment, cost ,motivation, not suitable for disorders
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what are the strengths of the psycodynamic approtch?
it has influenced everyday life, research evidence- little hans
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what are the weaknesses of psychodynamic approtch?
abstract concepts, sexism, lack of research evidence
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what is the main assumption of the cognitive approtch/
abnormal behaviour develops as a result of faulty thinking. our thoughts and expectations control the way we behave in different situations
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what are schemas?
a organised system of knowledge that we use to understand and interpret the world
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how do we develope negative schemas ?
traumatic events can lead to the formation of negative schemas, these then leads to negative automatic thoughts
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what are the four faulty thinking stragies?
dichotomous thinking, arbitrary inferences, overgenralisation, catastrophising, selective abstraction, exessive responsibility
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what are the three stages in ellis ABC model?
A- activating event B- belief C- consequence
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culture relaativism- only judge the bahviour from the culure it originates from. Context at which behaviour is judged. and socail norms change with time

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