Abnormality

  • Created by: gemshort
  • Created on: 20-10-17 14:29
According to the statistical deviation definition, what is abnormality?
Any characteristic or behaviour can be thought of as abnormal if it deviates from what the majority of people experience (it is statistically infrequent)
1 of 29
When is the statistical deviation approach best?
This approach is best when dealing with characteristics that can be reliably measured, for example, intelligence
2 of 29
What percentage of people have an IQ between 85 and 115?
68%
3 of 29
What is the average IQ?
100
4 of 29
What percentage of people have an IQ below 70?
2%
5 of 29
What is intellectual disability disorder?
If a person has an IQ below 70 and is failing to function adequately they may be liable for a diagnosis of intellectual disability disorder, which used to be known as mental retardation
6 of 29
What is one strength of the statistical deviation definition?
A strength of the definition is that it has real-life application in the diagnosis of intellectual disability disorder
7 of 29
What is a weakness of the statistical deviation definition in relation to statistical infrequency?
A weakness is that IQ scores over 130 are just as unusual as those below 70, but we wouldn't treat super-intelligence as an abnormality that needs treatment. Just because a behaviour is statistically infrequent does not mean it requires treatment
8 of 29
What is one weakness of the statistical deviation definition in relation to labelling someone as abnormal?
When someone is living a fulfilled life, there is no benefit from being labelled as abnormal regardless of how unusual a person may be. Being labelled as 'abnormal' may have a negative affect on a person's life and how others see them
9 of 29
According to the deviation from social norms definition, what is abnormality?
Groups of people define behaviour as abnormal on the basis that it breaks implicit or explicit social norms
10 of 29
Why are there relatively few behaviours that can be considered universally abnormal, according to the deviation from social norms definition?
Social norms are specific to the culture or generation we live in
11 of 29
What is antisocial personality disorder?
A person with antisocial personality disorder (psychopathy) is impulsive, aggressive and irresponsible. One important symptom is the 'absence of prosocial standards associated with failure to conform to lawful /culturally normative ethical behaviour'
12 of 29
What is a strength of the deviation from social norms definition?
The definition has several real-life applications in the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder
13 of 29
What is one weakness of the deviation from social norms definition in relation to antisocial personality disorder?
Even in the case of antisocial personality disorder, there are other factors to consider, for example distress to other people resulting from the disorder. In practice, this definition is never the sole reason for defining or diagnosing abnormality
14 of 29
What is one weakness of the deviation from social norms definition in relation to cultural norms?
Social norms vary across generations and communities (they are culture-bound). This creates problems as people from one culture living in another may be seen as abnormal
15 of 29
According to the failure to function adequately definition, what is abnormality?
A person may be seen as abnormal when they can no longer cope with the demands of everyday life and fail to function adequately, i.e. can no longer maintain basic nutrition/hygiene or cannot maintain a job/relationships
16 of 29
Which two people proposed some signs that can be used to determine when someone is not coping?
David Rosenhan and Martin Seligman (1989)
17 of 29
Rosenhan and Seligman (1989) identified three signs to determine when someone is not coping. What are they?
When a person no longer conforms to standard interpersonal rules; when a person experiences severe personal distress; when a person's behaviour becomes irrational/dangerous to themselves/others
18 of 29
What is one strength of the failure to function adequately definition?
It attempts to include the subjective experience of the individual and so captures the experiences of people who need help
19 of 29
What is one weakness of the failure to function adequately definition in relation to personal freedom?
It can be hard to say when someone is failing to function and when they are deviating from social norms. If we treat different types of behaviour as 'failures' of functioning, we risk limiting personal freedom and discriminating against people
20 of 29
What is one weakness of the failure to function adequately definition in relation to the judgement that someone is failing to function adequately?
Someone has to make a judgement that a person is failing to function adequately and this judgement is subjective
21 of 29
According to the deviation from ideal mental health definition, what is abnormality?
A different way to look at abnormality is to consider what makes a person 'normal' and think about who deviates from this mean
22 of 29
Who created the criteria for good mental health?
Marie Jahoda (1958)
23 of 29
What are the criteria for good mental health according to Jahoda?
No symptoms of distress; rational and can perceive ourselves accurately; can self-actualise; cope with stress; realistic view of the world; good self-esteem and lack guilt; independence; mastery of the environment
24 of 29
Why is there overlap between deviation from ideal mental health and failure to function adequately?
We may think of someone who cannot keep as a job as a failure to cope with the pressures or work or as a deviation from the ideal of successfully working
25 of 29
What is one strength of the deviation from ideal mental health definition?
It is a very comprehensive definition and covers the majority of reasons someone would seek/be referred for help from mental health services and so has practical application
26 of 29
What is one weakness of the deviation from ideal mental health definition in relation to cultural differences?
Some of the ideas in Jahoda's definition are specific to Western European/North American cultures (they are culture-bound) and so they lack external validity and cannot be applied universally
27 of 29
What is one weakness of the deviation from ideal mental health definition in relation to who is seen as abnormal?
Jahoda's criteria sets an unrealistically high standard for mental health. This definition is probably of no value when thinking about who might benefit from treatment against their will as almost everyone could be seen as 'abnormal'
28 of 29
What is one weakness of the deviation from ideal mental health definition in relation to labelling someone as abnormal?
When we label someone as abnormal, we may have a negative impact on their life, i.e. if someone is labelled 'depressed' after losing their job this label may make it harder for them to find another job
29 of 29

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

When is the statistical deviation approach best?

Back

This approach is best when dealing with characteristics that can be reliably measured, for example, intelligence

Card 3

Front

What percentage of people have an IQ between 85 and 115?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the average IQ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What percentage of people have an IQ below 70?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Abnormality resources »