Abnormality

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A person's thinking or behaviour is classified as abnormal if it violates the rules of social acceptability
Deviation from social norms
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Maladaptive behaviour that prevents an individual from achieving the most trivial things (maintaining a relationship, maintaining a job)
Failure to function adequately
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A person's trait, thinking or behavior is classified as abnormal if it is rare or statistically unusual
Statistical infrequency
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Rather than defining what is abnormal, we define what is normal/ideal and anything that deviates from this is regarded as abnormal (positive view of the self, growth and development, independence, positive relationships, environmental mastery)
Deviation from ideal mental health
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An anxiety disorder and irrational fear that interferes with daily living
Phobia
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Behavioural explanation of phobias- acquisition by classical conditioning, maintenance by operant conditioning
The two process model
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Aims to teach a patient to learn a more appropriate association for the phobic stimulus and reduces the unwanted response
Systematic desensitisation
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Involves overwhelming the individual's senses with the phobic stimulus using thoughts, images and experiences so that the person realises no harm will occur
Flooding
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Classical conditioning is used to remove an undesirable behaviour and replace it with a more appropriate one
Aversion therapy
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Uses reinforcement to encourage behaviour; a primary reinforcer is needed for survival, a secondary reinforcer is wanted/desired by the individual
Token economy
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A mood disorder characterised by low mood and low energy levels
Depression
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A package of beliefs and expectations of a topic that come from prior experience
Schema
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Two models of the cognitive approach:
Information processing model, computer model
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Suggested that there is a cognitive explanation as to why some people are more vulnerable to depression than others
Beck
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Three parts of Beck's cognitive vulnerability:
Faulty information processing, negative self-schema, negaive triad
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Ellis' ABC model:
A=an action is affected by...B= an individual's belief, which results in...C= a consequence
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The most commonly used psychological treatment for depression; the client is made aware of the link between emotion, behaviour and thought
CBT (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy)
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The impact of CBT may be improved if utilised in conjunction with...
Drugs
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Recurrent obsessions and compulsions that are recognised by the individual as excessive and unreasonable; often impairs daily life
OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder)
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The biological approach suggests that some individuals are predisposed to OCD
Genetics
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Genes that have been implcated in the development of OCD
Candidate genes
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Areas of the brain implicated in the development of OCD:
Basal ganglia, Orbitofrontal cortex, thalamus
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Three types of drug used to treat OCD:
SSRI's, SNRI's, Tricyclics
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Methods of investigating the genetic basis of behaviour
Twin studies, family studies, adoption studies, selective breeding
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The genetic constitution of an organism
Genotype
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An individuals anatomical features or observed traits
Phenotype
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Maladaptive behaviour that prevents an individual from achieving the most trivial things (maintaining a relationship, maintaining a job)

Back

Failure to function adequately

Card 3

Front

A person's trait, thinking or behavior is classified as abnormal if it is rare or statistically unusual

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Rather than defining what is abnormal, we define what is normal/ideal and anything that deviates from this is regarded as abnormal (positive view of the self, growth and development, independence, positive relationships, environmental mastery)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

An anxiety disorder and irrational fear that interferes with daily living

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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