ABNORMALITIES - DEPRESSION

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  • Created by: jawjeener
  • Created on: 13-04-16 19:16
Harrington et el
20% of first degree relatives have depression // General population - 10%
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Gershon
Found rates of depression are 2-3 times higher than
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Allen
Found a concordance rate of 40% for MZ twins // 11% for DZ twins
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McGuffin et al
Looked at 109 reared apart MZ/DZ twins // MZ CR - 46% // DZ CR - 20%
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Wender et al
Looked at relatives of those who had been adopted & hospitalised for depression // These relatives had a much higher rate for depression
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McGuffin
Gives an example of a strength for genetic link // Studied 109 pairs MZ&DZ twins // Concluded caused by genes
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Beck
Depression caused by 'catastrophising'
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Beck
Cognitive triad // View of self // View of world // View of future
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Butler and Beck
Gives a strength // Argued psychological explanation has practical applications // Looked at 14 meta-analyses // 80% benefitted
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Lewisohn
Provided criticism // Studied p's before they were depressed // Found those who became depressed were no more likely to have negative thoughts
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Freud
Argued depression is like grief // HOWEVER, there is a difference in that depressed people see themselves as worthless
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Freud
Said there was a difference between ACTUAL losses and SYMBOLIC losses
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Freud
Argued depression occurs when the super-ego is dominant
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Waller et al
Provides a strength // Found men who had lost their fathers when they were younger scored higher on depression scale
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Bifulco
Provides a strength // Children whose mothers had died // More likely to have depression
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Cooper et al
Provides a weakness // Argued loss of relationships only accounts for a small % // ONLY 10% of those who lose someone become depressed
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Comer
One weakness are methodological problems // Psychoanalysis isn't very effective // Depressed people find it hard to communicate and psychoanalysis needs this
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Freud's theory
Freud's theory is PSYCHOLOGICALLY DETERMINISTIC // bc he argues depression occurs when super-ego is dominant
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The main antidepressants
MAOI's // Tricyclics // SSRI's
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MAOI's
Block the action of the enzyme that breaks down noradrenaline & serotonin
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Tricyclics
Work in a similar way but have fewer side effects
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SSRI's
Example - Prozac // Inhibit re-uptake of serotonin
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Eysenck
Found SSRI's became commonly used because they had fewer side effects
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Steiner
Argued there have been many recent reports that Prozac like PREOCCUPATION w/ violence & suicide
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Drug treatments
Restored the public's faith in the medical profession
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Stern
Supported effectiveness of antidepressants // Tested with placebos // Effective in reducing symptoms in 65-75% patients // Placebos only reduced symptoms 33% of time
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Antidepressants
Work fast than psychotherapy / behavioural therapies // Provide immediate relief
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The Depression Guideline Panel
Found a number of double blind studies showed medication is effective // 50-70% who completely treatment showed improvement
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Ghetto et al
Looked at meta-analysis of 31 drug trials // Found continuing to take medication after remission gives a lower risk of recurrence
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Aaron Beck
Developed CBT for depression
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Ellis
Argued that some people have disturbed thoughts and this leads to anxiety & depression
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Beck
argued that therapies for depression should involve uncovering and challenging negative and unrealistic beliefs
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Beck
Cognitive triad // View of self // View of world // View of future
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Butler et al
Supported the effectiveness of CBT in treating depression
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Rush
Argued CBT is more effective than tricyclics
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Jarret
108 patients over a 10 week trial // Found CBT and MAOI treatment are equally effective
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Hollon
Found no difference between CBT and CBT used with tricyclic drugs
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Hollon et al
Supported that studies on depression show CBT is equal/more effective than drugs
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Evans et al
Presented that the relapse rate for CBT is lower
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Brent et al
Looked at 107 teenagers teenagers diagnosed with major depression and compared CBT, systematicbehaviour family therapy and individual support therapy // CBT most effective // Friends argue rate of improvement is an important factor
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Card 2

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Found rates of depression are 2-3 times higher than

Back

Gershon

Card 3

Front

Found a concordance rate of 40% for MZ twins // 11% for DZ twins

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Looked at 109 reared apart MZ/DZ twins // MZ CR - 46% // DZ CR - 20%

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Looked at relatives of those who had been adopted & hospitalised for depression // These relatives had a much higher rate for depression

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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