ABNORMALITIES

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  • Created by: jawjeener
  • Created on: 27-01-16 09:52
Lonner and Malpass
90% of psychologists are white, middle class males and thus participants will be the same
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Fernando
''Stereotypes are inherent''
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Ineichen et al
Examined hospital admissions // Found non-white groups - 36% of compulsory admissions // Only 17% voluntary admissions
3 of 45
McGovern and Cope
Supported Ineichen in imblanaced admissions // 2/3 hospital detained psychotic pateints were African Caribbean // Only 1/3 White and Asian
4 of 45
Cochrane and Sashidharan
There is a common assumption that behaviour of white people is normal and thus deviation from this is abnormal
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Rack
Argued that in some cultures hearing the deceased is seen as a good thing/a good omen whereas in DSM-IV, this would be diagnosed as a symptom of a psychotic disorder
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Sue and Sue
Found that members of minority groups adopt responses to help them survive // African Americans - distrust white Americans due to negative past // Diagnosed as paranoia
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Ford and Widiger
Gave therapists case studies - one patient = anti-social personality disorder // One patient = histrionic personality disorder // APD diagnosed correctly 40% time when male // Only 20% of the time when 20% // Histrionic = identified correctly more F
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Broverman et al
Asked clinicians to identify characteristics of a healthy adult, healthy male and healthy female // Healthy adult and male were similar = independent, decisive, assertive // Female = dependent, submissive, emotional
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Broverman et al
Symptoms of abnormality in classification systems might be based on deviation from stereotypes
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Nolen-Hoeksma
Argued men & women respond to depression differently // Men = distracting activities // Women blame themselves
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Howell
Women's experience in culture exposes them to depression // Clinicians diagnose the person's situation, not the individual
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Kety et al
Compared 207 children - high risk group // Control group - 104
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Parnas et al
Published findings // High risk group diagnosed 16.2% // Low risk diagnosed 1.9%
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Gottesman and Shields
Used Maudsley twin register // Looked at 12 MZ twins reared apart // 58% concordance rate
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Cardno et al
Also used Maudsley twin register // 40% MZ // 5.3% DZ
16 of 45
Randrup and Munkvad
Gave rats amphetamines (affect dopamine levels) // The rats showed schizophrenic behaviour // When given neuroleptics, behaviour reduced
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Barlow and Durand
Found neuroleptic drugs block dopamine // However, they do not reduce symptoms days/weeks after
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Park et al
Identified working memory deficits in SCH's and their NON-SCH FIRST DEGREE relatives
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Faraone
Looked at impairments in AUDITORY ATTENTION
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Cannon
Looked at verbal memory and attention // but NOT visual deficits //
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Frith
Argued positive symptoms of schizophrenia are due to fact that schizophrenics cannot monitor their thoughts/behaviour
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PET scans
There is an under activity in the frontal lobe which is linked to self-monitoring
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Hemsley
Argued there is a breakdown in the relationship between information already stored in memory and new, incoming info
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Hemsley
Argued people with SCH are subject to sensory overload // Don't know what to pay attention to and what to ignore
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Frith
Argued people with SCH are cognitively impaired // Cannot distinguish between whether actions are brought about externally/internally
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Frith
Argued the above processes are a part of META REPRESENTATION // This allows us to be aware of our goals and intentions // Also to understand beliefs & intentions of others
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Antipsychotic medications
Reduce psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia // Allow patient to function more effectively & appropriately
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Neuroleptic drugs
Reduce psychotic symptoms but can also produce symptoms of neurological disease
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Clozapine
Commonly used NEUROLEPTIC drug // Has few side effects
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Kendall and Hammen
Argued clozapine has two limitations // 1 - Expensive // 2 - Can produce fatal blood disease
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Windgassen
Half of patients using neuroleptic drugs reported grogginess/sedation // 18% - concentration problems // 16% - salivation problems // 16% - blurred vision
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Phenothiazines
Have therapeutic properties // Block dopamine receptors // Reduce the effect of dopamine on thoughts & behaviour
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Tardive Dykinesia
Found TD occurs in 15-20% of patients receiving older antipsychotics // Newer ones have a lower risk // HOWEVER, not 0% // If medication is given in high doses it could cause symptoms similar to Parkinson's
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ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUGS
Produce fewer side effects // Patients are less likely to stop taking the drugs
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Conley & Mahmoud
Found atypical antipsychotics are just as effective at treating antipsychotic symptoms //
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Leslie and Rosenheck
Found atypical antipsychotics had side effects like TYPE 2 DIABETES
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CHEMOTHERAPY
Produces rapid, beneficial effects
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Bustillo
Found randomised control trials showed CBT combined with medication can reduce delusions/hallucinations
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Green et al
Found therapies directed
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Cognitive Enhancement Therapy
Treatment that aims to enhance basic cognitive functions (learning ability) // compared group based CET with EMOTIONAL SUPPORT THERAPY (EST) // CET consisted of 80 hour of computer based training
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Hogarty et al
Found after 2 YEARS, CET more effective than EST
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Chadwick and Lowe
Found CBT reduced symptoms in 10/12 patients
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Kingdom and Turkington
Found CBT helped 70% // 30% deteriorated
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Bradshaw
Found clients in a 4 client study of CBT found a reduction in symptoms and rehospitalisation
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

''Stereotypes are inherent''

Back

Fernando

Card 3

Front

Examined hospital admissions // Found non-white groups - 36% of compulsory admissions // Only 17% voluntary admissions

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Supported Ineichen in imblanaced admissions // 2/3 hospital detained psychotic pateints were African Caribbean // Only 1/3 White and Asian

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

There is a common assumption that behaviour of white people is normal and thus deviation from this is abnormal

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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