Abnormal Psychology (8)

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What are the three domains of symptoms for schizophrenia?
Positive symptoms, negative symptoms, disorganised symptoms
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What are positive symptoms?
Delusions and hallucinations
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What are negative symptoms?
Avolition, Alogia, Anhedonia, Flat Affect and Asociality
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What are disorganised symptoms?
Disorganised behaviour and disorganised speech
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What is the prevalence of schizophrenia?
F
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When does schizophrenia usually appear?
in late adolescence or early adulthood (15-24)
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What are some examples of delusions and what percentage are diagnosed with them?
thought insertion, thought broadcasting, external forces, ideas of reference (in TV or magazines) .... 65%
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What percentage are diagnosed with hallucinations?
74%
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Which brain area shows greater activation when hallucinating?
Broca's area
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Connectivity between which areas are associated with hallucinations?
frontal and temporal areas
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What are the two domains of negative symptoms?
experience and expression
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What is Avolition (experience) ?
lack of motivation, inability to persist in routine activities
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What is Alogia (expression) ?
reduction of speech
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What is Anhedonia (experience) ?
loss in the experience of pleasure (anticipatory, not consummatory)
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What is flat effect (expression) ?
Lack outward expression of emotion (not inner experience) measured by skin conductance
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What is Asociality (experience) ?
Few friends, poor social skills, little interest in others, time alone
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What are disorganised symptoms?
disorganised speech (formal thought disorder), disorganised behaviour, catatonia, inappropriate effect
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What are the 5 DSM-IV-TR schizophrenia subtypes?
Disorgaanised, Catatonic, Paranoid, Undifferentiated and Residual
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What are the 6 ICD 10 schizophrenia subtypes?
Paranoid, catatonic, hebephrenic (affective), Undifferentiated, Residual and Simple
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What are the key changes to the DSM V diagnosis of schizophrenia?
no subtypes, removal of criteria that only one symptom must be hallucinations, delusions or disorganised speech
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What are the key changes to the DSM V diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder?
Del + Hal for at least 2 weeks in absence of meeting mood disorder criteria, symptoms of a Major MD present for majority of illness
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What is the key change to the DSM V diagnosis of delusion disorder?
removal of the requirement that delusions be non bizarre
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What is the key change to the DSM V diagnosis of schizophreniform disorder (1-6months)?
symptoms must include either hal, del or disorganised speech
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What is the key change to the DSM V diagnosis of brief psychotic disorder (1 day to 1 month)?
symptoms must include either hal, del or disorganised speech
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What did Gottesman 1991 find about the heritability of schizophrenia?
incidence when no parents have it = 0.86%, incidence when both parents have it = just under 50%
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Which neurotransmitters are associated with schizophrenia?
serotonin, glutamate and dopamine
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Where does the mesocortiyal pathway run?
begins in the ventral segmental area and projects to the prefrontal cortex
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Where does the mesolimbic pathway run?
Begins in the ventral tegmental area and projects to the hypothalamus, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens
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What are two possible explanations for the excessive activity in the dopaminergic system?
too many dopamine receptors, or, under activity of the dopamine neurones in the PFC so no control exerted of dopamine neutrons in subcortical brain regions
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Which symptoms do antipsychotic drugs mainly reduce?
positive symptoms
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What is different about ventricle size of individuals with schizophrenia compared to controls?
they are larger (less brain tissue) .. but this sin't specific to schizophrenia
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What behaviours is the PFC involved with?
speech, decision making, emotion and goal directed behaviour
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In which brain areas did Weinberger et al 1988 find dysfunction and during which task?
Dysfunction was in the prefrontal and temporal areas while performing the Wisconsin card sorting test (executive function)
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What are four environmental influences on brain development which may contribute to developing schizophrenia?
delivery complications, infection during pregnancy, stress, cannabis use
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Card 2

Front

What are positive symptoms?

Back

Delusions and hallucinations

Card 3

Front

What are negative symptoms?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What are disorganised symptoms?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the prevalence of schizophrenia?

Back

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