Abnormal Psychology (6)

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What are mood disorders?
depressive disorders which are dysfunctional, chronic and outside socially or culturally accepted norms
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What is Major Depressive disorder?
Sad mood or loss of pleasure for two weeks long with at least 4 other symptoms
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What is Dysthymic Disorder?
Mood is down for an other symptoms are present at least 50% of the time for at least 2 years
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What is Premenstrual dysphoric disorder? (DSM V)
Depressive and physical symptoms in the week before menses
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What is Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder? (DSM V)
Severe recurrent temper outburst and persistent negative mood for at least 1 year beginning before the age of 10
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What is Bipolar I disorder?
At least one lifetime manic or mixed episode
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What is bipolar II disorder?
At least one lifetime episode of hypomania and episodes of major depression
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What is cyclothymic disorder?
Recurrent mood changes from high to low, without manic episodes for at least 2 years
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What are the 'emotional' mood disorder symptoms?
sadness and dejection, loss of humour, anhedonia (inability to experience pleasure)
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What are the 'motivational' mood disorder symptoms?
lack of drive, initiative, spontaneity and social withdrawal
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What are the 'behavioural' mood disorder symptoms?
less active and productive, more time spent alone, slow movement and slow speech
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What are the 'cognitive' mood disorder symptoms?
extremely -ve view of themselves, self blame for unfortunate events, pessimism, helplessness, suicidal thinking, low performance in memory, attention and reasoning, rarely credit themselves for +ve achievements
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What are the 'physical' mood disorder symptoms?
headaches, dizzy spells, general pain, disturbances to appetite and sleep, fatigue
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Which is the most prevalent depressive disorder?
Major depressive disorder (16.2% of all US Americans)
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With every new episode of Major Depressive Disorder, how much does the risk of another episode change by?
The risk increases by 16% every time (average number of episodes =4)
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What is the depressive realism hypothesis?
Those with depressive disorders are more realistic than non depressed people
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What is the learned helplessness theory and who proposed it?
Seligman 1974: inescapable aversive events result in a sense of helplessness so you perceive an absence of control of outcomes
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Which theory of Depression did Abrasion, Metalsky & Alloy 1989 suggest?
The Hopelessness theory of depression
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Wha is Seasonal Affective Disorder linked to?
high melatonin levels (released during dark periods to prepare the body for sleep)
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Drugs affecting which neurotransmitters can reduce depression?
norepinephrine and serotonin
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What is the range of rentability estimates for depression?
33-45%
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Depression is associated with diminished activity in the...
left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
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Depression is also associated with increased activity in the...
right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
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What to antidepressant drugs act on?
serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline (inhibit their breakdown and block repute)
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What is an MAOI?
monoamine oxidase inhibitor
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Which parts of the brain are involved in the unipolar depression brain circuit?
subgenual anterior cingulate, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, Brodmann area 25
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What type of disorder is Bipolar disorder and why?
Cyclothymic disorder because the depressive and manic episodes are interrupted by a normal mood
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How common are depressive episodes in comparison to manic episodes in bipolar disorder?
depressive episodes are three times as often as manic episodes
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What is the life time risk of bipolar disorder for both genders?
1.3%
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What is the suicide attempt rate for those with bipolar disorder?
25%
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Which episode is more extreme, mania or hypomania?
mania
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What is the neurotransmitter activity of bipolar disorder?
low/high norepinephrine and dopamine, low serotonin
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Which brain structures are smaller in those with bipolar disorder?
the basal ganglia and cerebellum
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do those with bipolar disorder have a lower or higher volume of grey matter?
lower (grey matter = cell bodies)
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For those with bipolar disorder, where in the brain are there structural abnormalities?
in the dorsal raphe nucleus (serotonin production site)
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What do people with BP and MDD show poor regulation of?
the HPA axis (there is no suppression or cortisol release)
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What reduces release of cortisol after administration?
dexamethasone
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is Major Depressive disorder?

Back

Sad mood or loss of pleasure for two weeks long with at least 4 other symptoms

Card 3

Front

What is Dysthymic Disorder?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is Premenstrual dysphoric disorder? (DSM V)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder? (DSM V)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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