Abnormal Psychology (4)

HideShow resource information
How is generalised anxiety disorder different from phobias?
The anxiety is focused on everything but nothing in particular
1 of 36
How many people are affected by generalised anxiety disorder?
1 in 50 people are affected at some point in life
2 of 36
What is the ratio of females to males who suffer from GAD?
2:1 F:M
3 of 36
What is GAD commonly treated with?
BZs like valium and librium which stimulate GABA
4 of 36
For a DSM diagnoses of GAD, how long does excessive or ongoing anxiety and worry about events or activities have to persist for?
at least 6 months
5 of 36
What is the psychodynamic perspective of GAD?
children repeatedly prevented from expressing id impulses experience moral anxiety from experiencing id impulses
6 of 36
What is the cognitive perspective of GAD?
dysfunctional thinking and maladaptive beliefs lead to over-reactions to stressful events
7 of 36
What is the humanistic perspective of GAD?
children who receive a lot of criticism develop overly harsh standards and become overly critical of themselves
8 of 36
What is the biological perspective of GAD?
too few or less effective GABA receptors
9 of 36
Which areas of the brain are involved in anxiety? (Schnienle et al 2011)
the prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the amygdala
10 of 36
According to the ICD 10, what are phobic disorders?
A group of disorders in which anxiety is evoked only, or predominantly, in certain well defined situations that are not currently dangerous
11 of 36
What three things does the ICD associate with phobia disorders?
avoidance, physical symptoms (e.g. faintness), and secondary fears (dying, losing control, going mad)
12 of 36
What are the five categories of specific phobias as defined by the ICD 10?
animals, natural environments, situations, blood/injections/injury, other
13 of 36
What did Smith 1975 find out about Motmot birds?
Their fear of coral snakes is innate (not learned) and specific (not generalised) to coral snakes
14 of 36
What is the preparedness hypothesis? (Mineka et al 1984)
A species may be innately prepared to develop a fear, but will only develop it if in the right environment
15 of 36
What did Mineka and Cook 1988 find in support of the preparedness hypothesis?
fear or snakes was only learned if observed and observational learning did not work for all objects
16 of 36
What is the first part of the brain to register a fear stimulus?
the thalamus
17 of 36
Where does the thalamus send the info of the fear stimulus?
the amygdala (registers danger, triggers physical reaction) and the visual cortex (for considered response)
18 of 36
which part of the brain is highly activated when we see a fearful expression?
the amygdala
19 of 36
What is social phobia as defined by the ICD 10?
irrational fear of scrutiny by other people leading to avoidance of a social situation
20 of 36
what is the lifetime prevalence of social phobia?
6%
21 of 36
What % of people have occasional panic attacks?
8-12%
22 of 36
Which gender are more likely to have panic disorder? (recurring panic attacks)
women are twice as likely
23 of 36
What three symptoms occur after a panic attacks for a DSM IV diagnosis of panic disorder?
persistern concern about additional attacks, worry about the consequences of the attack, significant change in behaviour
24 of 36
What is the role of the Locus Ceruleus? (linked to panic)
increases awareness, watchfulness and activates the fight or flight response
25 of 36
Which neurotransmitter/hormone is released from the locus ceruleus?
norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
26 of 36
What is the prevalence rate of OCD?
2.5%
27 of 36
Where is there high neural activity in the brains of those with OCD?
the caudate nucleus and the orbitofrontal cortex
28 of 36
What are the most common obsession experienced by those with OCD?
contamination, aggression, death, sex, disease, orderliness, disfigurement
29 of 36
What are the most common compulsions experiences by those with OCD?
cleaning, checking, repeating, ordering, arranging, counting
30 of 36
What is another name for Post-traumatic stress disorder?
acute stress disorder
31 of 36
What is the relationship between PTSD and hippocampal volume?
A smaller hippocampal volume is related to more severe PTSD symptoms
32 of 36
People with dissociation are more likely to develop PTSD, what are two symptoms of dissociation?
feeling removed from one's body or emotion and being unable to remember the event
33 of 36
What are the variations of exposure therapy?
in vivo (real life), imagined, virtual reality and interoceptive (deliberately bringing on physical reactions)
34 of 36
What are the different approaches to exposure therapies?
graded (hierarchy), flooding, systematic desensitisation (graded+relaxation) and modelling
35 of 36
How do exposure therapies help anxiety disorders?
habituations, extinction, self efficacy, emotional processing
36 of 36

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How many people are affected by generalised anxiety disorder?

Back

1 in 50 people are affected at some point in life

Card 3

Front

What is the ratio of females to males who suffer from GAD?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is GAD commonly treated with?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

For a DSM diagnoses of GAD, how long does excessive or ongoing anxiety and worry about events or activities have to persist for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Anxiety Disorders resources »