Abnormal Psychologists

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Cochrane (1995)
black immigrants in the UK are more likely to be diagnosed with depression, this may be linked to stress due to immigration
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Johnstone (1989)
working class patients are giving longer hospitalisation periods and are treated physically rather than psychologically
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Robins et al (1984)
showed women are more likely to be diagnosed with depression and phobias and this is due to gender stereotypes attached to the female sex
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Ford and Wildiger (1989)
histrionic personality disorder was diagnosed more accurately in women, it is seen as a more typically 'female' disorder, characterised by emotional outbursts
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McGuffin et al (1996)
46% concordance for depression in MZ twins, 20% for DZ showing some genetic basis for the disorder
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Kendler (1992)
the comorbidity of depression and generalised anxiety disorder was higher in twins, showing depression may be a side affect of other genetically inherited disorders
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Wilhelm et al (2006)
negative life events were linked clearly to depression, especially in those with the short short form of the serotonin transporter gene, showing support for the diathesis stress model
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Beck (1967)
negative schemas are acquired in childhood
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Seligman (1967)
learned helplessness, once depressed people fail to try and escape other depressing situations
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Abramson (1978)
learned helplessness causes a depressive attributional style, the cause of any stressful event then becomes internal, stable and global
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Hammen and Krantz (1976)
depressed women made more errors in logical thinking supporting Becks ideas
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Joseph (2004)
40.4% concordance of schizophrenia in twins, only 7.4% in DZ suggesting a partially genetic basis
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Tienari et al (2000)
adopted children with schizophrenia mothers are more likely to develop schizophrenia
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Gottesman and Reilly (2003)
diathesis stress model - genes predispose a person to the disorder, it develops after a stressor
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Meyer-Lindenberg et al
excessive dopamine was linked to poor working memory
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Bateson (1956)
schizophrenic patients families are destructively ambiguous
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Berger (1965)
there is a higher recall of double bind in schizophrenic patients
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Cerletti and Brini (1938)
developed ECT
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Bennett (2003)
see ECT as a terrifying experience of personal autonomy, causing a disruption of emotions and memory
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Benton (1981)
ECT is seen as a punishment rather than a treatment, memory loss and biochemical changes occur
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Sanita et al (1998)
showed no difference in success rates between real and stimulated ECT
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Kingdon and Kirschen (2006)
many patients are not suitable for CBT as they can not engage fully with the therapy
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Drury et al (1996)
patients have less hallucinations when engaging in CBT
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Sackheim et al (1989)
real ECT is more effective that placebo ones, bilateral is more likely to cause problems but is more effective (depression)
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Scott (2004)
review of 13 studies, ECT is more effective than drug therapy in short term treatment (this was not compared to SSRI new treatment drugs) (depression)
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Rose et al (2003)
1/3 of patients complained of memory loss after ECT (depression)
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Butler et al (2006)
meta analysis, CBT is highly effective for treating depression
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Holmes (2002)
largest study conducted, CBT is less effective than drug therapy, but doesn’t take into account comorbidity and complex problems (depression)
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Kuyken and Tsivikos (2009)
15% variance is due to therapist competence
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Card 2

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working class patients are giving longer hospitalisation periods and are treated physically rather than psychologically

Back

Johnstone (1989)

Card 3

Front

showed women are more likely to be diagnosed with depression and phobias and this is due to gender stereotypes attached to the female sex

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

histrionic personality disorder was diagnosed more accurately in women, it is seen as a more typically 'female' disorder, characterised by emotional outbursts

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

46% concordance for depression in MZ twins, 20% for DZ showing some genetic basis for the disorder

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Preview of the back of card 5
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