Ability Test-Hydrocarbon Molecules (Selective)

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 18-07-14 17:52
What is a hydrocarbon?
A compound that contains only hydrogen and carbon atoms covalently bonded together,
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Why is carbon so special in a hydrocarbon?
As it has the ability to form long chains of atoms held together with covalent bonds
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How does the boiling point of a hydrocarbon change?
By increasing the number of carbon atoms in the chain,
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In a fractional distillator, what temperature is the crude oil heated to?
350oC
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Where is the crude oil seperated? (what is the machine called?)
A fractionating column
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What is maintained in the column to ensure the hydrocarbons vapourise at the right time and place?
A temperature gradient
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What are two options for the seperatd crude oil after this process?
They are either directly used or further processed,
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What is the definition of combustion?
Combustion is a type of chemical reaction that involves a fuel reacting with oxygen to produce heat and light energy,
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What kind of reaction is combustion adn why?
Exothermic as it releases heat,
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What type of compounds are the best fuels and an example?
Hydrocarbons- petrol, diesel,
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What is complete combustion? What are the products?
when the combustion reaction has a plentiful supply of oxygen and the hydrocarbon is decomposed completly to produce only carbon dioxide and water,
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What is the symbol equation for complete combustion with ethane? (balanced)
2C2H6 (ethane) + 7O2 (oxygen) -> 4CO2 + 6H2O (+energy)
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What is incomplete combustion? What are the products?
When there is not enough oxygen for combustion to occur so the hydrocarbon isnt decomposed properly, forming carbon monoxide, a poisonous gas, and carbon
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In incomplete combuston, what colour is the flame and what can this cause to be produced?
A yellow flame and can casue sooty marks,
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What is the symbol equation for incomplete combustion where the oxygen runs out mid through? (Word for reactants, symbols for products)
Hydrocarbon + Oxygen -> CO2 + H2O + CO + C (+ energy)
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What types of bonds do alkanes have in carbon carbon bonds and what does this make them?
Alkanes have single covalent bonds between their carbon atoms, making them saturated,
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What are some of the properties of alkanes and why are they like this?
-They are very unreactive, -They are not able to form polymers, -They burn cleanly and usually undergo complete combustion. This could be becuase the bonds between carbon atoms are veyr strong and require lots of energy to break,
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How does boiling point, viscoity (What does it mean?), Volatility (what does it mean?) change as the length of the chain increases?
Boiling point increases as the length of the CARBON chain increases, viscosity (how well it flows/ resisitance to flow) increases as the chain length increases and volatility (ease of evaporation) decreases as chain length increases,
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What is the difference between alkanes and alkenes?
Alkanes have single carbon bonds making them saturated adn alkenes have double bonds between carbon atoms, nmaking them unsaturated,
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What are the first three alkenes?
Ethene, propene, butene,
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What are molecules called when they have the same formula but different structures?
Isomers,
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What does the double carbon bond restrict in the hydrocarbon?
Free rotation and flexibilty,
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What are the properties of alkenes? (4)
-They decolourise bromine water, -They are very reactive and undergo many chemical reactions -They can form polymers, -They don't burn cleanly so produce very yellow flames and soot,
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What is a polymer?
A long chain of molecules made from lots of monomers joined together,
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How does polymerisation occur?
The double bonds between the alkene split under great temperatures and seperate onto either side of the carbon atom, joining the carbons together, creating a chain of monomers called a polymer,
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What does propene polymerise to form?
Polypropene
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why is carbon so special in a hydrocarbon?

Back

As it has the ability to form long chains of atoms held together with covalent bonds

Card 3

Front

How does the boiling point of a hydrocarbon change?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

In a fractional distillator, what temperature is the crude oil heated to?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where is the crude oil seperated? (what is the machine called?)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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