Abdomen for equine and porcine

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What type of fermenter is the horse?
Midgut fermenter
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What is the transverse colon always cranial to?
The route of the mesentery
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Which side of the horse is the descending colon on?
Left hand side
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Describe the equine stomach
Simple, relatively small, there's a non-glandular region and a glandular region separated by the margo plicatus and it has a well developed oblique cardiac sphincter
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What is the epithelium like in the non-glandular region (aka saccus caecus/fundus)?
Stratified squamous epithelium
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Describe the glandular region
Fundic, simple columnar epithelium
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What does fundic mean?
It is a physiological term which means it produces enzymes
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Why can't horses vomit?
The oesophagus enters at an oblique angle and they have a well developed cardiac sphincter
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What attachment to the spleen can get colon trapped in it?
Renosplenic ligament
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What ligaments are attached to the spleen?
Renosplenic and gastrosplenic
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What can the spleen do in horses?
It stores red blood cells and when exercising the capsule contracts so more red blood cells enter the blood stream
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Which side of the abdomen does the caecum in the horse occupy?
The right (in the paralumbar fossa)
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What junctions are open in the equine caecum?
The ileocaecal and caecocolic junctions
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How many taeniae are on the equine caecum?
4
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What are the sacculations on the equine caecum called?
Haustra
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What is the order of the ascending colon coming out from the caecum?
Right ventral colon, sternal flexure, left ventral colon, pelvic flexure, left dorsal colon, diaphragmatic flexure, right dorsal colon and transverse colon.
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What are taeniae?
Longitudinal bands of smooth muscle with intervening haustra
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How many taeniae does the right ventral colon have?
4
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How many taeniae does the left ventral colon have?
4
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How many taeniae does the left dorsal colon have?
1 band caudally (narrow) and 3 bands cranially (widening)
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How many taeniae does the right dorsal colon have?
3
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How many taeniae does the descending colon have?
2
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How many taeniae does the ascending colon have?
2
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What can you feel in a rectal examination of the horse?
Pelvic flexure, caudal pole spleen and left kidney (small horses only), root of mesentery, ventral taenial band caecum, jejunoileum only if dilated and ascending colon depending upon ingesta
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What would a twisted root of mesentery mean?
The jejunum has twisted
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What type of stomach does the pig have?
Monogastric
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Describe the stomach of the pig
Non glandular region (stratified squamous), diverticulum, cardia (glandular epithelium, simple columnar) and torus pyloricus
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Where is the pig caecum found?
Base near left kidney and is related to the left flank (unlike other species)
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What is the proximal bit of the ascending colon in the pig described as?
Centripetal (outer) turns
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What is the distal bit of the ascending colon in the pig described as?
Centrifugal turns
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Where does the apex of the spiral colon lie against in the pig?
Left flank
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What can you see on the left side of the pig?
liver, stomach, spleen, left kidney, spiral colon and jejunoileum
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What can you see on the right side of the pig?
Liver, right kidney, jejunoileum and bladder
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What can you see on the left side of the horse?
Liver, stomach, spleen, left dorsal colon, left ventral colon, jejunoileum and descending colon
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What can you see on the right side of the horse?
Liver, right kidney, descending duodenum, caecum, right ventral colon and right dorsal colon
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the transverse colon always cranial to?

Back

The route of the mesentery

Card 3

Front

Which side of the horse is the descending colon on?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe the equine stomach

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the epithelium like in the non-glandular region (aka saccus caecus/fundus)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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