A science glossary

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Adenine
It is a base (A chemical found in DNA) and pairs up with thymine.
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Amino acids
A small molecule that is the building block of proteins.
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Adult steam cell
A steam cell found in differentiated tissue that can produce a few kinds of differentiated cell.
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Allele
Every gene comes in different types called alleles. E.g. A gene for eye colour may come in blue alleles or brown alleles.
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Base
The 2 strands in molecules of DNA ( inn the double helix structure) are linked together at regular intervals by chemicals called bases. The bases are: Adenine, cytosine, thymine and guanine.
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Base pair ( complementary base pair0
The bases always pair up in the same way because of the complementary or matching shape of the molecules. E.g. Adenine with Thymine and Cytosine with Guanine.
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Base triplet or Codons
A group of three bases that codes for a particular amino acid.
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Beta - carotene
Substance in the human diet from which the body makes vitamin A
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Biodiversity
The variety of species present within a given area.
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Cells
The basic units of life in which many chemical reactions needed to sustain life take place (E.g. Growth)
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Cell membrance
Thin layer which forms a semipermeable barrier around the outer surface of the cytoplasm of the cell and controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell.
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Cellulose
Cell walls are made of tough cellulose which support the cell and allow it to keep its shape.
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Cell wall
Relatively rigid structure that surrounds plant and bacteria cells, which support cell and help it to keep its shape.
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Chlorophyll
Green substance in chloroplasts that absorb energy from sunlight.
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Chloroplast
Organelle in plant cells that contains cholorophyl, and is where photosynthesis takes place.
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Cytoplasm
The liquid gel which makes up a lot of the body of a cell and is where many chemical reactions takes place.
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Chromosomal DNA
The DNA which makes up the chromosomes of a cell.
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Chromosome
Thread-like structures found in the nucleus of the cell which carry the genetic information.
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Clone
An individual created by a form of asexual reproduction to produce offspring that is genetically identical to the parent.
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Cytosine
It is a base ( A chemical found in DNA) and pairs up with guanine.
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Catalyst
A substance that speed up the rate of a reaction without being used up in the reaction.
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Double helix
The spiral structure of a DNA molecule, produced by two strands of joined by complementary base pairs.
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DNA replication
When the chromosomes are copied before cell division occurs.
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Daughter cell
Cell produced from division of a parent cell.
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Denature
To break down/ change shape, as proteins denature with excess heat.
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Differentiate
Specialise, develop into different kinds, as in cells that become nerve, muscle or bone cells.
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DNA
Deoxyribonuclei acid, that makes up genes and chromosomes; the instructions for a cell's growth and activity.
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Diploid
A cell that has 2 sets of chromosomes. In humans, almost all cells except the sperm and egg cells are diploid.
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Digestion
The breakdown of large foods insoluble molecules into small, soluble food molecules.
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Embryo
The ball of cells produced by cell division of the zygote. A very early stage in the development of a new individual.
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Electron microscope
Instrument which magnifies specimens using a beams of electrons.
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Enucleate
Remove the nucleus from a cell.
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Embryonic steam cell
A cell from an early stage of division of an embryo that can produce almost any kind of differentiated cell.
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Enzymes
A protein molecule made by living cells that speed up the rate of reaction.
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Flagella
Whip-like proteins bodies found on the outside of bacteria cells and other cells which beat back and forwards and can be used for movement.
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Fertilise
When two gametes fuse
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Genome
All of the genetic information (DNA) of an organisms, as a list in order of every base.
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Gene
A section of DNA which codes for a specific protein
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Genetic code
The code produced by the sequence of bases in genetic material (e.g. DNA)
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Genetic engineering
The process of removing a gene from one organism and inserting it into the DNA in a cell from another organism.
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Genetically modified organisms
An organism that has had a gene from another species. (e.g. inserting a gene for producing human insulin into a bacterium).
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Gamete
Sex cell produced in male or female reproductive organs by meiosis.
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Haploid
Having one set of chromosomes, as in gametes.
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Human Genome Project
A project to sequence all of the base pairs of the human genome involving scientist from many different countries working together.
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Hydrogen bond
Base pairs are joined together by weak hydrogen bonds.
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Herbicide
Chemical which kills plant, usually used on weeds.
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Implant
In reproduction, placing an embryo into the uterus of a female animal to develop.
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Light microscope
Instrument which magnifies specimens using light and lenses.
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Lock and Key hypothesis
An idea that describes the relationship of a substrate and the active site of an enzyme to help explain how enzyme work.
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Meiosis
Division of parent cell that produces genetically different haploid cells
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Messanger RNA
The molecules formed during DNA transcription that carries the code from the chromosomes to a ribosome.
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Mitochondria
The site of cellular respiration where glucose is broken down using oxygen to release energy, which is needed for reactions in the cell.
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Mitosis
Division of a parent cell that produces two genetically identical diploid cells.
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Mutation
A change in the base sequence of DNA. Often as a result of exposure to radiation.
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Nucleus
Contains DNA for making new cells and organisms and also controls the reactions in the cell.
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Organelles
Tiny structure that carry out specific jobs, E.g. Nucleus and Mitochondria
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Parent cell
The cell that divides to produce daughter cells
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Photosynthesis
A series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions carried out in the green parts of plants. Carbon dioxide and water combine to form glucose. This process requires light energy from sunlight.
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Plasmid DNA
A circle of extra DNA found only in bacteria cells.
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Polypeptide
A chain of amino acids that will form part of a protein.
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Ribosome
Small structure in the cytoplasm of a cell where mRNA is translated into an amino acid chain.
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Sexual Reproduction
The formation of new individual from the fertilization of a female gamete by a male gamete. This individual is genetically different from its parents.
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Surrogate mother
A female who is not related to the embryo that is implanted in her uterus to develop.
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Substrate
The substance that is changed by an enzyme in chemical reaction.
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Transcription
When a strand of mRNA is produced by complementary pairing of bases with one strand of DNA in the nucleus.
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Uracil
A base only found in RNA, which replaces the base thymine found in DNA.
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Uterus
Womb
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Vacuole
Membrane-bound space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap, a store of water and nutrients. It helps to support the plant by keeping the cells rigid.
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Zygote
A fertilized egg cell.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A small molecule that is the building block of proteins.

Back

Amino acids

Card 3

Front

A steam cell found in differentiated tissue that can produce a few kinds of differentiated cell.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Every gene comes in different types called alleles. E.g. A gene for eye colour may come in blue alleles or brown alleles.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The 2 strands in molecules of DNA ( inn the double helix structure) are linked together at regular intervals by chemicals called bases. The bases are: Adenine, cytosine, thymine and guanine.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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