A Level Music: Quonium tu Solus (the Nelson Mass) by Haydn

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When was this piece composed?
1798
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Which family did Haydn compose for during his career?
The Esterhazy family
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Why was the Nelson Mass composed?
It occurred at a time when Europe was in war. It is associated with the victory of the Battle of the Nile: the Lord who won the Battle, Nelson, stayed at the Esterhazy's when the performance was debuted, hence it is referred to as the Nelson Mass
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What can the title, 'Missa in Angustiis' be translated as?
Mass in Troubled Times
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What type of mass is this work?
Choral: uses Latin words of the Catholic service
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Name the resources
SATB chorus and soloists, 3 trumpets, timpani, strings and organ. No woodwind: added in later versions. Orchestra was condensed dramatically due to the financial issues of the Esterhazy family
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What do the text and the instruments determine in this piece?
The structure
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Describe the structure thoroughly (1)
Opens with sop solo accompanied by strings & organ, the full orchestra & SATB chorus answer. 'Piano' section (bar 16) then preapres for the fugue. Fugal section (bar 22) where voices enter one by one.
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Describe the structure thoroughly (2)
Then there is a solo section (bar 62) where parts enter one at a time. Solos are then repeated. Ends with a 'tutti' sections (bar 77). Strings have semiquaver movement at end, creating excitement & flourish. Timpani highlights cadence at end (tuned)
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What is the structure?
Ternary (3 sections)
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Name the 5 core movements of a mass
1) Kyrie 2) Gloria 3) Credo 4) Sanctus and Benedictus 5) Agnus Dei
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Which movement does this work come from?
The final part of the Gloria, a jolly and uplifting movement
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What is the tonaliy of this piece?
D major (the tonality of the overall mass is in D MINOR) but this movement in the tonic major lightens the mood.
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Does the key change?
Yes, in the fugue section, to B minor in bar 35 (relative minor to D major), A major im bar 38 (G#s), E minor in bar 45 (D#s) and G major (C naturals) in bar 49.
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Describe the harmony
Diatonic and functional - typically classical. Pedal notes (particularly in Amen section from bar 62 in orchestral part where there is a tonic pedal which re-enforces the tonality).
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Describe the cadences
Mostly perferct, except in bars 44-45, where there is an interrupted cadence.
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Did Haydn like using inversions?
Yes: Bar 5: V7b and V7d. Bar 7: diminished chord 1
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Is there any hint at a circle of 5ths?
Yes - in the fugue counter subject in bars 22 (lower strings) and 37
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What is the metre?
4/4
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Explain the rhythm (1)
Quavers and semiquavers give the piece momentum: bar 22 in string parts and final amen. Tonic pedal quavers: bar 15 (establish tonality, drive piece forward)....
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Explain the rhythm (2)
... long tied semibreves: bars 1 & 4. Syncopation: orchestration, bar 17. Tied notes over barline: sop & alto: e.g. bars 57+58, anacrusis (determined by text): bars 4-5, 16-17
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Is the rhythm of the vocal part determined by the words?
Yes
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Mention features of the texture (1)
Changes in texture create dynamic texture. Antiphonal responses: solo and choir at beginning. Solo accompanied by homophonic accompaniment (i.e. MDH). Orchestral parts double voice parts: bar 37. Homophonic chorus at beginning until 22.
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Mention features of the texture (2)
...Parts are polyphonic in last 'amen' until bar 80 where final 3 barsof vocal parts are homophonic.
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Is there any imitation?
Yes, between soprano and alto: bars 39-40. Also in 'amen' section, with imitative entries octaves apart: bar 62 (bass, then tenor, then alto).
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What does 'stretto' mean and where is it found in this piece?
'Close imitation' - bars 44-45 between tenor and bass.
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What does 'florid' mean and where is it found in this piece?
Divides the voice parts and stops doubling the voices, bar 57: orchestral part.
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Are there any examples of a heterophonic texture?
Yes: bar 6. Violin I's semiquavers are based on melody in soprano 1.
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Is there a lot of sequence?
Yes, especially in counter subject, which first cocurs in bar 24 in bass part. Sop & alto have ascending sequence in bars 68-70.
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What is the melodic material based around?
Scales
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Are there many repeated notes?
Yes: bar 1 in soprano solo
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Are there many large leaps?
Yes: bars 5-6 where there is a minor 7th in soprano part. Bar 55: octave leap in soprano leap.
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The Fugue: Describe the Subject
2 bar fugue subject, originally occurs in bass in bars 22 + 23. This subject is built on triads and is a descending sequence. The counter subject accompanies at the same time the fugue enters.
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The Fugue: Describe the Countermelody
The counter subject, full of quavers, occurs in bass originally in bars 24 + 25, also a descending sequence.
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The Fugue: Describe the Answer
Tenor has the answer: it is pitched a 4th higher than the bass
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Which family did Haydn compose for during his career?

Back

The Esterhazy family

Card 3

Front

Why was the Nelson Mass composed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What can the title, 'Missa in Angustiis' be translated as?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What type of mass is this work?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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