A Level Music: Black and Tan Fantasy by Duke Ellington and Bubber Miley

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When was this piece recorded?
1927
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What style is adopted in this piece?
Jungle Style
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What does the title, 'Black and Tan' refer to socially?
It refers to the Cotton Club where black and white people came together to socialise, but in a very segregated way.
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The term, 'Fantasy', what does this refer to?
The idea that one day racial intergration may be possible.
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What did Ellington write to?
The strengths of his players.
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Name the resources
Piano, trumpets, trombone, saxophones, banjo, bass and drums.
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What are the 3 main sections of the orchestra?
1) Reeds, 2) Brass, 3) Rhythm Section
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How do the resources contribute to this Jungle Style?
1) Dark saxophone textures, 2) Growling of plunger-muted trumpet, 3) Heavy drums
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Give an overview of the structure
Intro/Chorus 1, Interlude, Choruses 2,3,4,5,6 and CODA
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Now explain each of those sections clearly:
Intro/Chorus 1: Trumpet and trombone in parallel 6ths, Interlude: saxophones, Chrouses 2 and 3: trumpet solo, Chorus 4: piano solo, Chorus 5: trombone solo, Chorus 6: another trumpet solo.
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Which bars are improvised?
Bars 29-84
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What defines the structure?
The 12 bar blyes played 6 times - the 1st and 2nd times are seperated by independent 16 bar section.
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Which popular ballad is the opening of this piece an adaptation of?
The Holy City by Stephen Adams
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What changes does Ellington makes from the popular ballad?
The rhythm is augmented and the tonality changed to minor and the major 3rd of B major becomes a bluesy minor 3rd.
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What has been quoted and used in the CODA?
Chopin's Funeral March - is used to leave a pessimistic final comment.
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Describe what a 'Head' arrangement is
It is a chord progression that provides a pattern of chords (changes) that players must keep in their heads and improvise with
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What is the tonality?
Begins and ends in Bb MINOR, yet bars 13-87 are in Bb MAJOR
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Describe the harmony
Diatonic and functional enhanced by 'blues' in melody and pitch bends. Based on 12 bar blues. As piece progresses so does the advanced chromatic harmony. There are 7th, secondary dominant and substitution chords. Parallel harmonic movement:bars 27-28
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What type of cadences are found in the CODA? Is this typical or unusual?
Repeated plagal cadences - unusual for jazz.
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Is there a cycle of 5ths?
Yes, Bb to Gb, bars 19-20
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What is the metre and tempo?
4/4, medium/slow tempo
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Describe the rhythm
All swung, except in CODA, there is cross-phrasing in bars 17-18, 25-26
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Rhythm in the opening:
Serious: constant crotchet accented chords
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Rhythm in saxophone solo:
Triplets and syncopated, swung quavers
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Rhythm in trumpet solo:
Bar 29: complex rhythms. Triplet crotchets, 'long' upbeat dotted crotchets: bars 36, 40 and 42.
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Rhythm in piano solo:
crotchet movement in bass, quaver/semiquaver movement in treble, swung rhythms and syncopation: bars 63-64
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Describe the texture
Intro and CODA: parallel 6ths in trumpet and trombone, low sustained chordal accompaniment. Choruses 1,2,5,6: MDH, Chorus 4: piano texture, 'stride' bass and wide leaps.
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Describe the melody in saxophone solo:
Whole tone scale: bars 13-14, then moves to conjunct and broken chordal movement
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Describe the melody in trumpet solo:
Bluesy notes that clash with diatonic Bb maj harmony e.g. 3rds and 7ths: bars 33 and 48, covers 2 octaves in range, dissonance in bar 41. The second solo is more restricted in range, yet has more trills and repeated notes.
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Describe the melody in piano solo:
Begins on a long anacrusis, unaccompanied solo allowing greater freedom, melody is mostly diatonic with some chromatic passing notes (not on beat, less effect). Uses both hands: wide range.
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Describe the melody in trombone solo:
High in pitch, smaller range of 10th, blue 3rds: bar 74 and horse whinny: bars 72-73.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What style is adopted in this piece?

Back

Jungle Style

Card 3

Front

What does the title, 'Black and Tan' refer to socially?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

The term, 'Fantasy', what does this refer to?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did Ellington write to?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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