A Divided Union? Topic 1: McCarthyism and the Red Scare

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Section 1: The Impact of the Cold War
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Soviet expansion in E Europe
USA thought they would take over world, there were no democratic elections - Stalin going against promises at Yalta, domino theory, USA thought USSR would destry capitalism, Cominform caused mistrust
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NATO, 1949
Stalin saw this as a military threat
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Atom bomb
Soviets developed it in 1949, much earlier than predictions -> fears of espionage
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The Truman Doctrine, 1949
stop the spread, caused by British lack of control in Greece
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The Marshall Plan
help Europe -> USA the 'good guys' - give them support to stop the attraction of communism
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The Berlin Crisis, 1948-9
blockade and airlift, Stalin looked aggressive - he was against the split of Germany, NO WAR - neither side want one
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The Korean War, 1950-3
China turned communist ('49) - communsim a worldwide threat, war in Korea between ideologies
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Section 2: The Development of the Red Scare
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FBI
set up FELP to investigate employees, run by J. Edgar Hoover - very anti-communist, forced people to swear loyalty oaths or resign, kept secret dossiers on left-wing thinkers
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FELP, 1947
investigate loyalty, no cases of espionage uncovered but investigated 6.6 million people, 3 000 forced to resign and 200 sacked
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HUAC, 1947
increased paranoia, seen by many as out of control, public trials showed it was unstoppable
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The Hollywood Ten
accused of sending out a communist message through films, pleaded 5th Amendment and refused to answer qs, jailed for contempt of court, lots of publicity as they wee famous
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The Hiss Case
named as communist but denied all charges ('48), then Chambers shows Truman files from govt copied on Hiss' typewriter ('50), jailed for 5 years for perjury NOT espionage due to lack of evidence -> still shows power of HUAC
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The Rosenburg Case
accused of being spies, named during interrogation of Fuchs in Britain, thought they passed secrets re atom bomb, showed the US fear of communism, sparked worldwide protest
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Section 3: McCarthyism
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Emergence
claimed he had a list of 205 govt workers who were communist, got McCarran Act passed, called a "fraud" and "hoax" by comittee investigating claims - accuses them of being communist -> no-one dares challenge him
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Methods
banned books, bullying tactics - intimidated witnesses, never had real evidence, caused shock to get support
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Impact of these methods
shock and fear, mistrust, spying on neighbours etc
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Decline
'54 TV programme criticising him set up by popular broadcaster Ed Murrow, overruled by Eisenhower over choice of USSR ambassador, publicly reprimanded for abusing his power, looked angry and a bully compared to amry lawyer Welch
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Overall Impact
mistrust remained - suspicious of everyone else, it was illegal to be communist - land of the free?, also anyone for change was a 'communist' - eg civil rights movement
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Card 2

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USA thought they would take over world, there were no democratic elections - Stalin going against promises at Yalta, domino theory, USA thought USSR would destry capitalism, Cominform caused mistrust

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Soviet expansion in E Europe

Card 3

Front

Stalin saw this as a military threat

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Soviets developed it in 1949, much earlier than predictions -> fears of espionage

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

stop the spread, caused by British lack of control in Greece

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Preview of the back of card 5
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