A Divided Union? Key Topic 3: Changes in the Civil Rights Movement

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Birmingham, 1963
King jailed for defying ban on marches, protest met with water cannons and police dogs - lots of horrific photos show brutality -> publicity, children also joined in protest
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Washington, 1963
250 000 people gathered but no violence, encouraged discussions between CR leaders and president
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'Freedom Summer', 1964(?)
combination of CORE, SNCC and NAACP, set up schools, attacked by white racists -> media attention
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Murder of Chaney, Schwerner and Goodman
volunteers for SNCC murdered by KKK, shock -> publicity and support from north Americans, CR Act passed at height of crisis
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The Civil Rights Act, 1964
made segregation illegal, law on their side - could win court cases, some attitudes wouldn't change
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The Voting Rights Act, 1965
ended literacy tests -> more black voters and representatives, took a while to register so whites still had the majority, still a fear of the KKK
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The assassination of King, 1968
Results. Short term: rioting in 100 cities, 46 people died. Long term: without a major leader, CORE and the NAACP stopped working together, also more people joined violent groups to fight back
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Malcolm X
.
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Original beliefs
member of the Nation of Islam: separatist, against whites and violent -> against King - "farce on Washington"
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Popularity
autobiography sold 4 million copies, young people could relate to him, increased Nation of Islam membership by 100 000
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Positive impact
spread the message that black Americans weren't happy, encouraged them to expect more
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'64 Pilgramige to Mecca
changed beliefs - more inclusive, left Nation of Islam -> shot by 3 members in 1965
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Black Power
gave young people control over their lives, wanted change without help from whites, slogan meant improving everyday life for black Americans
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Stokely Carmichael
under him SNCC expelled all white members, was a freedom rider
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'68 Olympics
200m winner and bronze medallist gave salute -> dismissed from team and sent home, BUT huge amounts of publicity for the cause
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The Black Panthers
10 point programme, start revolution, end to capitalism, wore uniforms and went on armed patrol, willing to ally with extremist groups
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Rioting in the mid-60s
LA - 6 days, 34 dead. Detroit - 8 days, 43 dead. millions of $ of damage done
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

250 000 people gathered but no violence, encouraged discussions between CR leaders and president

Back

Washington, 1963

Card 3

Front

combination of CORE, SNCC and NAACP, set up schools, attacked by white racists -> media attention

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

volunteers for SNCC murdered by KKK, shock -> publicity and support from north Americans, CR Act passed at height of crisis

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

made segregation illegal, law on their side - could win court cases, some attitudes wouldn't change

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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