A2 Section C - Finishing

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What does mechanical finishing use? What does it do?
Heat, pressure and rollers; improves appearance
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What fibres is raising (brushing) used on?
Staple
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How is brushing done?
Fabric pass through rollers with wire brushes that lift fibres to form a nap.
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What is a negative that brushing gives to the fabric's properties?
Weakens the fabric due to the action of the rollers
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What may reduce the effects of brushing?
Repeated washing and ironing flatten the fibres
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What is calendaring?
Industrial equivalent of ironing. Fabric is passed through a series of rollers that use pressure to smoothen the fabric.
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What is a benefit and a drawback of calendaring?
Improves lustre; not permanent
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How else can calendaring be used to create effect?
Engraved rollers allow raised patterns to be added to the fabric
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Why do fabrics shrink in the first wash?
In construction, fabrics are pulled and stretched. When they are washed they relax and shrink.
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What is heat setting used on?
Thermoplastic fibres
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How does heat setting work?
Fabric is set into shapes when heated, and held in place as they cool. This will be permanent as long as they are washed at the correct temperature.
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How can chemical finishing improve a fabric?
Improves appearance, handle or performance
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How can a fabric be made water repellent?
Spraying a fabric with silicones; examples include Teflon and Scotchgard
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How is a fabric made stain resistant?
A fluorochemical is applied through an environmentally friendly process that doesn't involve CFCs. Product eventually biodefrades
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When are fabrics bleached?
Before dyeing
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What is mercerising?
Cotton and linen fabrics are mercerised using caustic soda to make them stronger, dye better and improve lustre
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How can wool be made shrink resistant?
Using silicone and Teflon, makes it machine washable
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What are cotton and linen made crease resistant?
Using a resin
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How is a fabric made flame resistant?
A chlorine or phosphorous finish is applied and fixed.
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What are the drawbacks of making a fabric flame resistant?
The finish makes the fabric stiffer and reduces strength. It is expensive and less effective the more times it is washed.
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Give an example of a flame resistant finish.
Proban
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What are smart finishes?
New, high tech finishing products. E.g. anti-bacterial, odour control
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What is coating?
Applying a layer of polymer to the surface of a fabric (e.g. Teflon)
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What are biological finishes?
Used for synthetic fabrics to change appearance
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What are heat-sealing?
Used for synthetic fabrics to set material into shape, or to seal seams on all-weather gear
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What is laminating?
Combines 2 or more layers of different materials, bonded together by adhesive or the thermoplastic quality of one
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Give an example of a laminating fabric.
Iron on Vilene
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What fibres is raising (brushing) used on?

Back

Staple

Card 3

Front

How is brushing done?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a negative that brushing gives to the fabric's properties?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What may reduce the effects of brushing?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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