# A2 Physics Definitions

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Newton's 1st Law

A body will continue to remain at rest or continue to move with constant velocity unless acted upon by a force

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Newton's 2nd Law

Force is proportional to the rate of change of momentum

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Newton's 3rd Law

When one body exerts a force on another body, the other body exerts a force that is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction on the first body

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Impulse

Force x time which force acts

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Elastic Collision

Collision in which kinetic energy is conserved

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Inelastic Collision

Collision in which kinetic energy is not conserved, some is lost to the surroundings as heat

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Gravitational Field Strength

Force per unit mass at a point in a gravitational field

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Angular frequency

Product of 2pi x frequency

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Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

Acceleration is proportional to displacement from the equilibrium position, and acceleration is always towards the equilibrium position

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Internal Energy

Total of randomly distributed kinetic energy and potential energy of molecules

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Boyle's Law

Pressure is inversely proportional to volume for a fixed mass of gas at a constant temperature

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Latent Heat of Fusion

Thermal energy required to change a solid into a liquid at a constant temperature

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Latent Heat of Vaporisation

Thermal energy required to change a liquid into a gas at a constant temperature

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Electric Field Strength

Force per unit charge

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Magnetic Flux Density

Amount of magnetic flux per unit area

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Tesla

Magnetic flux density is 1 tesla when a wire carrying a current of 1A placed at right angles to the magnetic field experiences a force of 1N per metre of its length

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Weber

Equal to one tesla metre squared

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Magnetic Flux Linkage

Product of magnetic flux and number of turns on the coil

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Lenz's Law

Any induced emf will be established to in a direction so as to produce effects which oppose that change that is producing it

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Faraday's Law

Induced emf is proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage

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Capacitance

Charge per unit potential difference

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Farad

Coulomb per volt

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Time Constant

Time taken for the p.d., charge stored or current to fall to 1/e of its initial value. Calculated by CxR

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Nuclide

A specific combination of protons and neutrons in a nucleus

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Activity

The rate at which radioactive nuclei decay

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Decay Constant

Probability of decay of a nucleus per unit time

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Half Life

Time taken for the activity of a radioactive substance to fall by half

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Binding Energy

The minimum energy needed to separate all of the nucleons in a nucleus

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Binding energy per nucleon

The minimum energy needed to separate all of the nucleons in a nucleus divided by the total number of nucleons

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Parsec

The distance an object must be from the earth to give a parallax angle of 1 arc per second

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Light year

The distance traveled by light through a vacuum in one year

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Olbers' Paradox

For a universe infinite in size, static, and with uniformly distributed matter, the night sky should be bright because of light received in all directions from stars.

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Hubble's Law

The speed of recession of a galaxy is proportional to its distance from earth

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Cosmological Principle

The distribution of matter in the universe is homogeneous (evenly distributed) and isotropic (same in all directions) when viewed on a large enough scale

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H(0)

About 2.3 x 10^-18 s^-1. Ratio of the speed of a receding galaxy to its distance from the earth

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Critical Density

The average density the universe would need to be in order for the fate of the universe to be flat. Value = 9.5 x 10^-27 kg/m^3

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Beta Plus Decay

A positron emitted from a nucleus that has undergone nuclear decay

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Beta Minus Decay

An electron emitted from a nucleus that has undergone nuclear decay

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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

Force is proportional to the rate of change of momentum

#### Back

Newton's 2nd Law

### Card 3

#### Front

When one body exerts a force on another body, the other body exerts a force that is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction on the first body

#### Back

### Card 4

#### Front

Force x time which force acts

#### Back

### Card 5

#### Front

Collision in which kinetic energy is conserved

#### Back

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