A2 OCR Biology Key Terms and Definitions Excretion

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Excretion
The removal of toxic waste products of metabolism.
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Urea
The main nitrogenous excretory product of mammals, made in the ornithine cycle following the deamination of amino acids.
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Liver
A large organ situated just beneath the diaphragm; its cells carry out a very wide range of metabolic reaction, including deamination and the interconversion of glucose and glycogen.
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Urine
Liquid produced by the kidneys, containing urea and other waste products dissolved in water.
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Hepatic Artery
The blood vessel that delivers oxygenated blood to the liver.
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Hepatic Portal Vein
The blood vessel that carries blood from the alimentary canal to the liver.
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Hepatic Vein
The blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from the liver towards the heart.
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Lobule
A unit of structure in the liver.
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Hepatocytes
Liver cells.
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Sinusoids
Channels between cells in the liver, that carry blood.
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Bile
A substance that is made in the liver and stored in the gall bladder, before passing along the bile duct into the duodenum; it contains bile salts which help to emulsify lipids in the alimentary canal.
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Bile Canaliculi
Channels between cells in the liver, that carry bile.
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Bile Duct
A tube that carries bile from the gall bladder to the duodenum.
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Kupffer Cells
Phagocytic cells found in the liver; they are macrophages and destroy bacteria.
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Deamination
The removal of the amino group from an amino acid; it takes place in the liver and results in the formation of ammonia.
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Ornithine Cycle
A metabolic pathway that takes place in liver cells, in which urea is produced from excess amino acids.
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Alcohol Dehydrogenase
An enzyme found in liver cells that converts ethanol to ethanal.
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Aldehyde Dehydrogenase
An enzyme found in liver cells that converts ethanal to ethanoate.
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Fatty Liver
A condition in which fat deposits are formed in the liver, often as a result of the excessive consumption of alcohol.
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Cirrhosis
The formation of fibrous tissue in the liver, often as a result of the excessive consumption of alcohol; it can cause liver failure and death.
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Bladder (Urinary)
The organ in which urine is stored before being released from the body through the urethra.
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Ureter
One of the tubes that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
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Urethra
The tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.
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Renal Artery
The blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood to a kidney.
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Renal Vein
The blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from a kidney towards the heart.
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Cortex
The outer part of a kidney, in which renal capsules are found.
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Medulla (Of Kidney)
The inner part of the kidney, in which loops of Henlé and collecting ducts are found.
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Pelvis (Of Kidney)
The innermost part of a kidney, where the nephrons merge into the ureter.
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Nephron
A kidney tubule.
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Renal (Bowman’s) Capsule
Bowman’s capsule; the cup-shaped part at the beginning of a nephron, into which ultrafiltration takes place.
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Proximal Convoluted Tubule
The first, highly coiled, part of a nephron.
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Loop of Henlé
The section of a nephron that dips down into the medulla and then back up into the cortex of the kidney.
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Distal Convoluted Tubule
The second coiled part of a nephron.
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Collecting Duct
The final part of a nephron, which joins the Ureter.
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Afferent Arteriole
The (larger) blood vessel that delivers blood to a glomerulus.
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Efferent Arteriole
The (smaller) blood vessel that carries blood away from a glomerulus.
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Glomerulus
A network of blood capillaries in the cup of the renal capsule.
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Ultrafiltration
Filtration on a molecular scale, this happens in the renal capsules of the kidney nephrons.
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Podocytes
Cells that make up the inner wall of a renal capsule.
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Glomerular Filtrate
The fluid that is filtered from the blood and passes into a renal capsule.
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Selective Reabsorption
The absorption of wanted substances from the glomerular filtrate into the blood.
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Descending Limb
The part of the loop of Henlé which carries fluid downwards from the cortex to the medulla.
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Ascending Limb
The part of the loop of Henlé which carries fluid upwards from the medulla to the cortex.
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Counter-Current
An arrangement in which fluid flows in two vessels close to one another, in opposite directions. This maximises the concentration difference, which allows substances to diffuse across vessels.
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Co-Transport
A form of active transport in which the active movement of 1 ion provides a gradient which can provide energy for the movement of another ion or molecule up its concentration gradient.
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Osmoregulation
The regulation of the water content of body fluids.
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Osmoreceptors
Cells that detect changes in the concentration of a fluid.
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Anti-Diuretic Hormone (ADH)
A hormone that is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland, which increases the permeability of the collecting duct walls and so allows the production of small volumes of concentrated urine.
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Aquaporins
Protein-lined pores in plasma membranes that allow water to diffuse through.
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Monoclonal Antibodies
Antibodies (immunoglobulins) all of one type.
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Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (HCG)
A hormone that is secreted during pregnancy, and whose presence in urine indicates that a woman is pregnant.
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Anabolic Steroids
Steroid hormones that stimulate anabolic reactions, such as those that result in a gain in muscle.
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Dialysis
The use of a partially permeable membrane to allow certain substances to diffuse from one fluid to another, down their concentration gradients.
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Haemodialysis
The treatment of kidney failure by passing the patient’s blood through dialysis tubing surrounded by dialysis fluid.
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Peritoneal Dialysis
The treatment of kidney failure by infusing dialysis fluid into the patient’s abdominal cavity, and then removing the fluid after it has exchanged solutes with the body fluids.
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Kidney Transplant
The replacement of a kidney with a kidney taken from another person.
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Xenotransplant
A transplant from one species to another (e.g. a pig’s heart to a human).
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The main nitrogenous excretory product of mammals, made in the ornithine cycle following the deamination of amino acids.

Back

Urea

Card 3

Front

A large organ situated just beneath the diaphragm; its cells carry out a very wide range of metabolic reaction, including deamination and the interconversion of glucose and glycogen.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Liquid produced by the kidneys, containing urea and other waste products dissolved in water.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The blood vessel that delivers oxygenated blood to the liver.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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