A2 OCR Biology Key Terms and Definitions Animal Behaviour

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Ethology
The study of the behaviour of an animal in its environment.
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Psychology
The study of mental processes and their effects on behaviour.
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Behaviouralism
The study of stimuli and responses, and their modification by rewards and punishments.
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Innate
In born, innate behaviour is genetically determined and ‘hard-wired’ into an organism’s nervous system.
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Escape Reflex
A fast, automated response to a stimulus resulting in a sudden movement that helps the animal to escape a predator.
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Kinesis
A response to a difference in an environmental factor in one place compared with another, in which the organism moves more quickly and/or turns less often where the conditions are less favourable; plural, kineses.
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Taxis
A movement towards or away from a stimulus; plural, taxes.
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Habituation
A type of learning in which an animal learns not to respond to a repeated stimulus.
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Imprinting
A form of learning in which, during a particular ‘window’ of time early in its development, an organism comes to treat a particular object or organism as something to which it should remain near, as though it were its mother.
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Classical Conditioning
A type of learning in which an animal learns to respond to a stimulus which is different from the one that normally elicits a response.
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Conditioned Reflex
A reflex action in which the original, innate reflex has been modified so that a different stimulus brings about the response.
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Operant Conditioning
A type of learning in which an animal learns to carry out a particular action in order to obtain a reward or avoid an unpleasant effect.
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Associative Learning
Learning as the result of the association of a new stimulus with a reward or unpleasant effect.
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Reinforcer
A reward or unpleasant effect that an animal learns to associate with a particular behaviour pattern.
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Latent Learning
Learning that occurs in the absence of an obvious reward, and which is only manifested later in different circumstances.
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Insight Learning
A type of learning in which an animal appears to integrate memories arising from two or more pieces of behaviour, in order to produce a new response that achieves a reward.
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Social Relationships
Interactions between organisms living in a group.
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DRD4 Receptor
One of several types of G-protein coupled receptors for dopamine, found in the membranes of postsynaptic neurones.
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Card 2

Front

The study of mental processes and their effects on behaviour.

Back

Psychology

Card 3

Front

The study of stimuli and responses, and their modification by rewards and punishments.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

In born, innate behaviour is genetically determined and ‘hard-wired’ into an organism’s nervous system.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A fast, automated response to a stimulus resulting in a sudden movement that helps the animal to escape a predator.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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