A2 OCR Biology Key Terms and Definitions Biotechnology

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Biotechnology
The industrial use of living organisms (or parts of living organisms) to produce food, drugs or other products.
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Nutrient Broth
A liquid containing the full range of nutrients required by a population of microorganisms, in which they can be cultured.
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Binary Fission
The principal method by which bacteria reproduce, splitting into two; it is not the same as mitosis because bacteria do not have linear chromosomes.
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Lag Phase
The initial stages in the growth of a culture of microorganisms, in which they synthesise suitable enzymes for the conditions in which they have been placed and begin to reproduce.
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Log Phase (Exponential Phase)
The stage in the growth of a culture of microorganisms in which their numbers double at regular intervals; this occurs while nutrients, oxygen and space are not limiting factors; (exponential phase).
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Stationary Phase
The stage in the growth of population of organisms in closed culture in which birth and death rates equal, so the population size remains constant, it occurs when an environmental factor, such as nutrient supply or concentration of toxins is limting.
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Decline Phase (Death Phase)
The stage in the growth of a population of organisms in closed culture in which death rate exceeds birth rate; also called death phase.
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Fermenter
An enclosed vessel in which microorganisms are cultured; industrial fermenters are frequently very large and made of stainless steel.
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Secondary Metabolite
A substance produced by an organism only at certain stages of its growth or development; it is not required for its normal day-to-day metabolism.
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Primary Metabolite
A substance produced by an organism as part of its basic metabolism for example, by respiration.
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Batch Culture
Culturing microorganisms in a closed fermenter to which nothing is added during the fermentation; at the end of the process the product is harvested, the fermenter cleaned out and a new fermentation is set up.
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Fed Batch Culture
A modified form of batch culture in which nutrients are added at intervals during the fermentation process.
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Mycoprotein
A type of food made from the hyphae of fungi.
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Hyphae
The long, thin threads that make up the body of a fungus.
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Continuous Culture
Culturing microorganisms in a closed fermenter to which nutrients and other requirements are added steadily throughout the fermentation, and products are steadily harvested.
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Asepsis
The absence of microorganisms; used in biotechnology to mean the absence of all microorganisms apart from the one you wish to culture.
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Immobilised Enzyme
Enzymes that have been trapped into or onto a solid, for example in gel beads.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A liquid containing the full range of nutrients required by a population of microorganisms, in which they can be cultured.

Back

Nutrient Broth

Card 3

Front

The principal method by which bacteria reproduce, splitting into two; it is not the same as mitosis because bacteria do not have linear chromosomes.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The initial stages in the growth of a culture of microorganisms, in which they synthesise suitable enzymes for the conditions in which they have been placed and begin to reproduce.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The stage in the growth of a culture of microorganisms in which their numbers double at regular intervals; this occurs while nutrients, oxygen and space are not limiting factors; (exponential phase).

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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