A2 Marine Science key terms

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Osmoconformer
An organism which maintains an internal osmotic concentration which is the same as that of the surrounding medium
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Euryhaline
Able to osmoregulate in both marine and freshwater environments. Able to tolerate a wide range of salinities.
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Recruitment (in the context of fish stocks)
Rate of addition of new fish to a population
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Fecundity
The number of eggs produced by a fish
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Internal fertilisation
Involves direct transfer of sperm from male into female reproductive tract
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External fertilisation
Involves release of male and female gametes into water
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Intensive aquaculture
Organisms kept in enclosures where environmental factors are monitored and controlled
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Extensive aquaculture
Organisms reared in a natural situation
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Bioaccumulation
The process in which a compound increases in concentration as it passes along a food chain
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Antifouling paint
Paint used on ships' hulls to reduce the growth of attached organisms such as barnacles
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Conservation
The protection of the environment by humans, with an aim to preserve biodiversity
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Ecotourism
Tourism based on the appreciation of the natural environment
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Biotechnology
Industrial application of biological processes
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Promoter
Part of a gene which regulates the expression of the gene and indicates where to start transcription
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Stakeholder
A person who has an interest in a particular area
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Gene
A length of DNA that codes for a specific polypeptide product
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Genotype
Genetic constitution of an organism
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Phenotype
Physical appearance of an organism
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Genetic engineering
Transfer of genes from one species to another
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Precautionary principle
Idea that, if an action or policy has a possible risk of causing harm to people or to the environment, then the burden of proof that it is not harmful falls on those taking the action
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Pumped ventilation
A ventilation mechanism which involves a constant flow of water THROUGH the gills
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Ram ventilation
A ventilation mechanism which involves a constant flow of water OVER the gills
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Sustainable fishing
Catching fish at a level that maintains fish stocks, whilst causing minimum damage to the environment
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Catch per unit effort (CPUE)
Size of catch divided by time spent fishing
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Osmoregulation
The ability of an organism to maintain a constant solute potential and water potential in its blood and body fluids
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Selective breeding
Parents with advantageous characteristics are chosen and paired to produce offspring with those characteristics
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Benthic trawling
A technique used to catch species living on or near the sea bed which causes considerable
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Purse seine fishing
A technique which lowers nets to encircle and catch entire schools of fish near the ocean surface
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Dredging
Process of dragging a dredge along the seabed to keep shipping lanes clear and extract gravel/metals from the sea bed
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Card 2

Front

Able to osmoregulate in both marine and freshwater environments. Able to tolerate a wide range of salinities.

Back

Euryhaline

Card 3

Front

Rate of addition of new fish to a population

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The number of eggs produced by a fish

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Involves direct transfer of sperm from male into female reproductive tract

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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