A2 Key Terms Government & Politics Unit 3b, Topic 1 - (Liberalism) AQA

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Feudalism
System of agrarian-based production that is characterised by fixed social hierarchies and a rigid pattern of obligations
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Divine Right
Doctrine that earthly rulers are chosen by God - thus wield unchallengeable authority
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Absolutism
Form of gov't in which political power is concentrated in hands of a single individual or small group, in particular, an absolute monarchy
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Classical liberalism
Tradition within liberalism seeks to maximise realm of unconstrained individual action - typically by establishing minimal state and reliance on market economics
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Modern liberalism
Tradition within liberalism that provides a qualified endorsement for social and economic intervention as a means of promoting personal development
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The Enlightenment
Intellectual movement that reached its height in the c.18. Challenged traditional beliefs in religion, politics and learning in general in the name of reason and progress
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Negative freedom
Absence of external restrictions or constraints on the individual, allowing freedom of choice
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Positive freedom
Self-mastery or self-realisation. The achievement of autonomy or the development of human capacities
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Paternalism
Authority exercised from above for the guidance and support of those below, modelled on the relationship between fathers and children (ANTI-LIB)
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Freedom
Supreme individualist value
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Rationalism
Belief the world has a rational structure - this can be disclose through exercise of human reason. Knowledge flows from reason not experience, best things are made in reason
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Justice
Moral standard of fairness and impartiality, social justice is the notion of a fair or justifiable distribution of wealth and rewards in society
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Equality
Principle that human beings are of identical worth or are entitled to be treated in the same way, equality is rather vague
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Meritocracy
Rule by those with merit. Intelligence classes as more effort - more reward, societal position is based on ability/hard work
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Pluralism
Belief in diversity or choice, political power should be widely and evenly dispersed
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Toleration
A willingness to accept views or action with which one is in disagreement
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Autonomy
Self-government, ability to control one's own destiny by virtue of enjoying independence from external influences
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Natural rights
God-given rights that are fundamental to humans and are therefore inalienable
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Utilitarianism
Use-value, economics describes the satisfaction that is gained from the consumption of material goods and services - (BENTHAM COINED)
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Mercantilism
School of economic thought - state's role in managing international trade and delivering prosperity
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Market
System of commercial exchange between buyers and sellers, controlled by impersonal economic forces 'market forces'
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Free Market
Principle of unfettered market competition, free from gov't interference
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Laissez-faire
Doctrine that economic activity should be entirely free from gov't interference
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Market fundamentalism
(Neo-Lib) - Absolute faith in market, reflecting belief that market mechanism offers solutions to ALL economic and social problems
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Individuality
Self-fulfilment achieved through the realisation of an individual's distinctive identity
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Altruism
Concern for interests and welfare of others
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Keynesianism
Modern-Lib idea, gov't can regulate demand, managed economy
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Commercial liberalism
form of liberalism that emphasises the economic and international benefits of free trade - mutual benefit
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Republican liberalism
Form of liberalism that highlights the benefits of republican gov't in particular, emphasises the link between democracy and peace
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Humanitarian intervention
Military intervention in the affairs of another state that is carried out in pursuit of humanitarian rather that strategic objectives
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Card 2

Front

Doctrine that earthly rulers are chosen by God - thus wield unchallengeable authority

Back

Divine Right

Card 3

Front

Form of gov't in which political power is concentrated in hands of a single individual or small group, in particular, an absolute monarchy

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Tradition within liberalism seeks to maximise realm of unconstrained individual action - typically by establishing minimal state and reliance on market economics

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Tradition within liberalism that provides a qualified endorsement for social and economic intervention as a means of promoting personal development

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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