A2 Ethics Keyords

Normative Ethics
Rules by which we make ethical and moral decisions. E.G Utilitarianism and Natural Law.
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Ethical Naturalism
Moral values can be derived from sensory information.
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Naturalistic Fallacy
The idea that ‘good’ cannot be defined.
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Intuitionism (Prichard)
The theory that moral truths are known through your intuition.
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Logical Positivism
Only things that can be tested are meaningful.
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Something that is true by definition.
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Something that is yet to be verified.
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Emotivism (A.J Ayer)
A theory and set of beliefs that moral statements are just expressions of our emotions.
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Prescriptivism (RM Hare)
A theory that ethical statements have intrinsic sense so other people should agree with the statement.
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The final goal of human beings, happiness and flourishing
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The quality of doing what is right, the balance between excess and deprivation. E.G Courage instead of rashness and cowardice.
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Cardinal Virtues (Plato)
Prudence, justice, temperance and courage. The qualities of the classes.
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Intellectual Virtue
Any kind of intelligence, wisdom and technical skill.
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Golden Mean
The balance of extremes of virtues and vices, of excess and deficiency
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People are free to make their own moral choices and as such are responsible for them.
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Hard Determinism
The belief that we have no free will, everything is predetermined due to prior causes and as such we are not morally responsible.
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Soft Determinism
The belief that aspects of our lives and moral decision making are determined but supports that we are still morally responsible for our actions.
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The idea that it is possible to be both free and determined.
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The belief that God has already decided who will go to heaven and nothing you can do will influence it.
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Autonomous Moral Agent
Someone who can make a moral decision freely and as such is responsible for their actions.
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‘Ought implies can’
Do not blame someone for what they could not do, but instead for what they could do but chose not to.
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Our moral sense of right and wrong.
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Aquinas’s idea of right reason where we already know what is right to do.
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Aquinas called this the actual ethical judgment or decision a person made.
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This is the want of well-being for yourself.
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Butler saw this as wanting what is best for other people and showing them love.
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Authoritarian Conscience (Fromm)
Our sense of moral right and wrong formed in us by authority figures.
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An approach to the environment which places human interest above every other species.
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The Judaeo-Christian belief that humans have a special place in the natural world.
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Intrinsic Value
Something’s value lies within itself.
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It is the belief that humanities role is to sustain and maintain the living world.
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Bio centric
An ethical theory which sees the biological nature of the Earth to be of supreme importance.
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Deep Ecology
Sees all life forms as important and human life as just another part of the biosphere and as no more important that everything else.
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Shallow Ecology
We maintain for and care for the earth in order to make conditions better for humans.
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A theory of which the environment is in some manner important such as Deep Ecology.
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An approach that considers the geological nature of the Earth to be the most important.
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Conservation Ethics
The ethics of the allocation, protection and the exploitation of the natural world.
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The ability to feel pleasure and pain.
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Instrumental Value
Something’s value lies in its utility and how helpful it is to others.
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A way of thought which seeks to create equality between men and women within society.
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Never having sexual relations with any other people.
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Harm Principle
The belief that an act or consequence is morally permissible if no harm is done.
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Queer Theory
The idea that there is no set legitimate type of sexual relationship so we are free to make our own definitions.
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Apparent Good
What we believe to be a good decision but in reality it is not.
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Gaia Hypothesis
The idea that all of the bio organisms upon the planet Earth work together to create a self-regulating complex eco system.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Moral values can be derived from sensory information.


Ethical Naturalism

Card 3


The idea that ‘good’ cannot be defined.


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


The theory that moral truths are known through your intuition.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Only things that can be tested are meaningful.


Preview of the back of card 5
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