A2 Chemistry - Rings, Polymer and Analysis

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Bond angle and shape of a benzene molecule
Trigonal planar and 120
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Molecular formula of benzene
C6H6
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Structure of benzene
P-orbitals have a sideways overlap above and below the planar ring, forming a pi-bond, causing electrons to be delocalised
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Nitration of benzene equation
Benzene + HNO3 ------> C6H5NO2 + water
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Reagents and conditions of nitration of benzene
Concentrated sulphuric acid and 50 C
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Chlorination and bromination of benzene equation
Benzene + Cl2/Br2 --------> C6H5Cl/Br + HCl/HBr
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Conditions and reagents of bromination and chlorination of benzene
FeCl3 or FeBr3
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Chlorination and bromination of benzene require a special catalyst called....?
A halogen carrier
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Benzene can only undergo ............ reactions
Electrophilic substitution reactions
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Uses of phenol
Pharmaceuticals, detergents, disinfectants and resin in paint
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Primary alcohols oxidise to.....?
Aldehydes and then carboxylic acids
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Secondary alcohols oxidise to .....?
Ketones
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Tertiary alcohols oxidise to....?
No change
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The reagent to oxidise alcohols is?
Acidified potassium dichromate, which will turn from orange to green
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The reagent to reduce carbonyls is?
Sodium borohydride ( NaBH4 )
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The reagent to detect a carbonyl compound is....?
Brady's reagent ( 2,4-DNP) which will form a orange precipitate if present
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To detect aldehydes, the reagent is .....?
Tollen's reagent which will form a silver mirror if aldehydes are present
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Reagents and conditions of acid hydrolysis of esters
Heated under reflux, dilute sulphuric acid
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Reagents and conditions of alkaline hydrolysis of esters
Heated under reflux with sodium hydroxide
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Nitrobenzene and nitroarenes are reduced using....?
Tin, concentrated hydrochloric acid and heated under reflux
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To form a diazonium ion, the mixture must be kept below....?
10 C
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The reagents for the coupling reaction in an azo dye is....?
Alkaline conditions
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Zwitterion
A dipolar ionic form of an amino acid that has no overall charge
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Isoelectric point
The pH value at which the amino acid exists as a zwitterion
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Amino acids are joined via...?
A condensation reaction in which a peptide bond is formed and a water molecule eliminated
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A chiral carbon
A carbon atom attached to four different atoms/groups or atoms
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Optical isomers
Stereoisomers that are non-superimposable images of each other
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A polyester is formed from....?
A dicarboxylic acid and a diol
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A polyamine if formed from....?
A dicarboxylic acid and a diamine
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The reagent to detect carboxylic acids is.....?
Aqueous sodium hydroxide to form effervescence if present
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The reagent to detect a phenol is.....?
Sodium to form effervescene if present or bromine to form a white precipitate if present
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The reagent to detect alkenes is.....?
Bromine water which will go from orange to colourless if present
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The reagent to detect amines is....?
Hydrochloric acid which is detected by a fishy smell
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In thin layer chromatography the states of the phases are....?
Mobile phase : liquid Stationary phase : solid
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In gas chromatography the states of the phases are...?
Mobile phase: gas Stationary phase: solid or liquid
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A solid stationary phase separates by...?
Adsorption
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A liquid stationary phase separates by....?
Relative solubility
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To calculate the Rf value:
Distance moved by component / Distance moved by solvent front
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Retention time
The time for a component to pass from the column inlet to the detector
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2 types of NMR
Carbon-13 NMR and proton NMR
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The number of peaks shows...?
The number different carbon environments
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The chemical shifts show...?
The type of carbon environment
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Molecular formula of benzene

Back

C6H6

Card 3

Front

Structure of benzene

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Nitration of benzene equation

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Reagents and conditions of nitration of benzene

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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