# A2 Research Methods

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- Created by: DonaJ2002
- Created on: 14-01-20 10:34

Describe and explain case studies

Longitudinal(long period), detailed + depth, that involve gathering data the subject+their relatives. They analyse unusual individuals/events(rare disorder) or common cases.Interviews/obs/questionnaire=qualitative history/assess (e.g.IQ)=quantitative

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Define and describe content analysis

Type of observational research where ppts. are indirectly studied via spoken interactions, written communication or media(books/TV)

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Name and describe the first stage of content analysis

Coding large data into meaningful categories by counting number of times word(including synonyms)/phrase appears in text= quantitative data

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TALK THEMANTIC ANALYSIS WITH MRS VERE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

.

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Define reliability and give an example of how a data can be reliable

Consistency measure= if certain measurement is repeated and same result obtained

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What are the 2 ways of assessing reliability?

1. Test-retest 2. Inter-rater observer

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Explain what test-retest is and what indicates reliability in the test/task

Same person is tested twice by giving them the same test/task on multiple occasions- if the test/task is reliable, then results would be same/similar each time it's done

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Explain inter-rater observer and state what indicates reliability

Multiple observers compare their obs. data by doing pilot study, to check observers are applying behavioural categories in the same way= observers should watch same event; independently record their data- if data similar=reliable

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In test-retest and inter-rater observation what is done to the scores?

2 sets of scores are correlated

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What should the correlation co-efficient be to indicate reliability?

Correlation coefficient should exceed +0.80= reliable

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What are the 4 ways to improve reliability?

1. Rewrite/deselect some questionnaire items 2. Improved training for interviewer 3. Experiments use standardised procedures 4. Operationalise behavioural categories for observations

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Explain why and how do you rewrite questionnaires that produce low test-retest reliability, to improve reliability?

Replace open questions that causes misunderstanding/misleading with closed questions ALSO, offer fixed choice alternatives that is less ambiguous

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Explain what you should train interviewers to do, to improve reliability and state an alternative to training all interviewers

Training all interviewers to avoid misleading and ambiguous questions; if training is too expensive and not able then, use the same interviewer for all ppts.

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Why are lab experiments reliable?

Strict control of variables, the procedure, conditions and standardised instructions

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What should the observing categories be to improve reliability?

1. Non-overlapping 2. Measurable (e.g. pushing is less open to interpretation than aggression)

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If observations overlap or are absent, explain what should be done and state the consequence of this

Different observers should use own judgement in deciding what to record and where; may end up with inconsistent results or if results are similar then it's reliable

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Define validity

Has the researcher tested what they intended to do and is the result genuine and represent the real world

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When can data be reliable but not valid- use IQ?

IQ test that produce same result every time when the same people are tested= reliable but it doesn't measure what it's supposed to measure= not valid

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Explain what ecological validity is and how can you remember what this means?

Do findings generalise to other settings as well as the one in the study- including if the task is done in everyday life setting other than the lab? [REMEMBER: ECOLOGY relates to ENVIRONMENT]

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Explain what temporal validity is and use Asch's study as an example. How can you remember temporal validity's meaning?

Do findings stay consistent over time? (e.g. Asch's study lacks temporal validity as it was conducted in conformist era in American history) [REMEMBER: Temporal and Time has a T!!!!!]

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What are the 2 ways of assessing validity?

1. Face validity 2. Concurrent validity

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Define face validity

Does the test measure what it appears to have measured? [REMEMBER: FACE= APPEARANCE and FACE VALIDITY= does it measure what it APPEARS to measure?]

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How is face validity done?

Keep eye on measuring apparatus or ask expert to check it

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Define concurrent validity and explain what indicates validity

Are the findings from your study similar to established studies and if they exceed +0.80 correlation coefficient= valid!!!!!!

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List the ways you can improve validity

1.Control groups-experiments 2.Standardised procedures- experiments 3.Lie scale- questionnaire 4.Tell respondents all data is confidential 5.Defined, operationalised, non-ambiguous+ non-overlapping categories 6.Interpretive validity+triangulation

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How does control group and standardised procedures improve validity in experiments?

1. Control groups= ensure effect on DV was due to IV. 2. Standardised procedures reduce impact of demand characteristics and investigator effects

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How does lie scale and assuring respondents that all data is confidential, improve validity?

1. Lie scale reduce social desirability bias effects. 2. Reassuring respondents that data is confidential= reduce chances of them lying

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How can interpretive validity and triangulation improve validity and for what type of research?

Interpretive validity via coherence(consistency) of reporting+inclusion(including) of direct quotes from ppts. Triangulation involves using number of different sources as evidence(interview data/diaries) to improve validity of qualitative research

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Why are statistical tests used?

Statistical tests in psychology determine if there's a difference or association(correlation) in a research is statistically significant/ if it happened by chance

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How do you choose a statistical test?

1.Does the study look for difference or association 2.Experimental design related(matched pairs/ repeated measures) or unrelated (independent groups) 3.Is data nominal/ordinal/interval 4.Imagine stats test table, use these info to decide which test

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Draw the table of stats test and state what MNEMONIC to use to remember it!!!

.

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Define nominal, ordinal and interval data

Nominal= Categories-each item appear in one category. Ordinal= data placed in ordered scale. Interval= based on numerical scales that include precisely defined and equal units (e.g. counting no.of obs. from tally chart/ time/temperature/length)

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Explain why interval data is better than ordinal data

Ordinal lacks precision as it's based on opinion than unbiased measures. Interval data is better as more detail is preserved as scores not converted to ranks

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Define null hypothesis

States there's no difference/correlation between the conditions

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Explain when the null hypothesis is accepted

If stats test is not significant= accept null hypothesis and reject experimental hypothesis

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State how to identify there's NO significance so that you can accept the null hypothesis, for each stats test

.

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How can you remember which stats test shows that if the calculated value is equal to/more than shows significance=reject null hypothesis?

Rule of R= Stats tests with the letter ''r'' in them shows that calculated value has to be equal to/moRe than critical table value to be significant (=reject null hypothesis)

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Define probability

Measure of chance a certain even will occur: 0= impossible and 1= certain

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There are no statistical certainties in psychology so, what are used instead and define them

No statistical certainties in psychology so, we use significance level= point we accept/reject null hypothesis

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What is the usual significance level we use in psychology

0.05 (5%)= probability of observed effect(result) occurred by chance is equal to/less than 5%

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Explain type I error

Null hypothesis is rejected and experimental hypothesis is accepted= optimistic error/false positive as significant difference/ association is found when one doesn't exist

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Explain type II error

Null hypothesis accepted but in reality the experimental hypothesis is true= pessimistic error/ false negative

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Explain when both Type I and Type II errors are likely to occur?

Type I occur if significance level is too high (0.1= 10%) because significant values are not missed Type II occur if significance level is too low (0.01= 1%) because significant values are missed

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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

Define and describe content analysis

#### Back

Type of observational research where ppts. are indirectly studied via spoken interactions, written communication or media(books/TV)

### Card 3

#### Front

Name and describe the first stage of content analysis

#### Back

### Card 4

#### Front

TALK THEMANTIC ANALYSIS WITH MRS VERE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

#### Back

### Card 5

#### Front

Define reliability and give an example of how a data can be reliable

#### Back

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