A2 OCR Biology Types of Behaviour

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Habituation
Animals learn to ignore certain stimuli because repeated exposure to the stimulus results in neither a reward or a punishment
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Imprinting
Young animals become associated with another organism (usually the parent). This occurs during a 'receptive' period
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Innate Behaviour
A behaviour that an animal is capable of from birth without any learning or practice. Such behaviours appear to be very inflexible and are stereotypical in all members of a species
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Classical Conditioning
(Learned Behaviour) Two unrelated stimuli are applied to an animal (an unconditioned stimulus & a neutral stimulus). Repeated exposure to both stimuli leads the animal to produce a conditioned response to the conditioned (formerly neutral) stimulus
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Operant Conditioning
A specific behavioural reaction to a stimulus based on an element of reward or punishment (also known as trial and error learning)
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Latent Learning
Learning by exploration of new surroundings and retaining information which may be of later use
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Insight Learning
Also known as problem-solving. It is regarded as the highest form of learning and is based on the ability to think and reason in order to deal with situations in ways that do not resemble fixed, reflex responses or the need for repeated trial & error
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Learned Behaviour
Animal responses that change or adapt with experience. Considerable variety is shown between members of a species
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Reflexes
Involuntary responses which follow a specific pattern in response to a given stimulus
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Kinesis
Orientation behaviour whereby the rate of movement increases when the organism is in unfavourable conditions. This type of response is non-directional
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Taxis
Directional orientation response (i.e. towards or away from a certain stimulus)
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Orthokinesis
Kinesis whereby the speed of movement is dependent on the intensity of the stimulus
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Klinokinesis
Kinesis whereby the rate of turning is proportional to the intensity of the stimulus
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Fixed Action Patterns (FAPs)
Instinctive behavioural responses to stimuli, leading to a fixed pattern of neuronal output
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Young animals become associated with another organism (usually the parent). This occurs during a 'receptive' period

Back

Imprinting

Card 3

Front

A behaviour that an animal is capable of from birth without any learning or practice. Such behaviours appear to be very inflexible and are stereotypical in all members of a species

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

(Learned Behaviour) Two unrelated stimuli are applied to an animal (an unconditioned stimulus & a neutral stimulus). Repeated exposure to both stimuli leads the animal to produce a conditioned response to the conditioned (formerly neutral) stimulus

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A specific behavioural reaction to a stimulus based on an element of reward or punishment (also known as trial and error learning)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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