A2 Geography Ecosystems

HideShow resource information
Abiotic
Non-living components of an ecosystem and includes; climate, soil characteristics, parent rock, air, relief and drainage characteristics
1 of 63
Arresting Factors
The factors that cause succession to be interrupted
2 of 63
Autotroph
Green plants that photosynthesise to produce food to support trophic levels above them
3 of 63
Azonal Soil
Immature soil with poorly developed profile eg. Volcanic soil
4 of 63
Biodiversity
The variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or on Earth
5 of 63
Biomass
The total mass of living organisms present in a community at any one time - kg/m2
6 of 63
Biome
A major global ecosystem influenced by climate
7 of 63
Biotic
Community of interdependent living components in an ecosystem
8 of 63
Blowouts
These occur when the wind causes erosion of the dune rather than deposition. They can take place naturally due to severe weather events, but many of the blowouts that we see around the British coast have occurred due to degradation of the vegetation
9 of 63
Brown Earth
A zonal soil for temperate deciduous woodland, commonly on clay soils
10 of 63
Calcification
Calcium is no longer removed if leaching is limited and so it accumulates
11 of 63
Carnivore
An animal that only eats meat; trophic level 3
12 of 63
Catena
A sequence of soils down slopes
13 of 63
Cation Exchange
The chemical replacement of cations within the soil
14 of 63
Cheluviation
Organic-metal compounds are soluble and easily transported down the profile
15 of 63
Climatic climax vegetation
The final stage in succession, the richest community for a climate
16 of 63
Colonisers
First plants to invade
17 of 63
Community
The entire variety of species that are found in one ecosystem
18 of 63
Conservation
The protection and possible enhancement of natural environments to ensure their survival for future use
19 of 63
Decomposers
Organisms that take the remains of dead plants and animals, as well as excreted waste and concert them back to CO2 and nutrients
20 of 63
Deforestation
The deliberate clearance of forest from land by cutting or burning. Causes Plagioclimax vegetation
21 of 63
Detritivores
Organisms that brake down leaves and dead animals, reducing them by decomposition back into soil nutrients
22 of 63
Ecology
The study of communities of living organisms
23 of 63
Ecosystem
A dynamic, stable, community of interdependent living (biotic) and non living components (abiotic)
24 of 63
Eluviation
Process of washing out of materials in suspension
25 of 63
Fauna
Animals
26 of 63
Flora
Plants
27 of 63
Food Chain
A sequence of energy transfers from on trophic level to another. A food web is a more realistic and complex sequence.
28 of 63
Fragile Environment
One which is easily disturbed and that lacks resilience to change
29 of 63
Gleying
Reduction of ferric to ferrous iron under waterlogged conditions
30 of 63
Habitats
Specific locations with a particular set of conditions and an appropriately adapted community
31 of 63
Herbivore
An animal that only eats plants; trophic level 2
32 of 63
Horizon
A distinct horizontal layer in a soil profile
33 of 63
Humus
Decomposed organic matter in the Ao horizon
34 of 63
Humification
Soil organisms break down organic matter to form humus
35 of 63
Illuviation
Process of deposition or washing in of soil material from the A to the B horizon in a podsol
36 of 63
Leaching
Removal of base cations from the soil by acidic rainwater where precipitation exceeds evaporation
37 of 63
Mircohabitats
Small specific locations e.g. under a leaf
38 of 63
Monoculture
Plantations that produce only one species of tree or one type of food
39 of 63
Organic Farming
Farming using natural manures and avoids the use of chemical pesticides
40 of 63
Nutrient Cycling
The cycling of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus taken up by plants, passed up to herbivores, carnivores and then broken down by detritivores who reduce them by decompostition back into soil nutrients
41 of 63
Photosynthesis
The process in green plants by which carbohydrates are synthesised from CO2 and water using light as an energy source, and producing oxygen as a by product.
42 of 63
Pioneer Species
Plants which invade bare ground, hardy and adapted to harsh environments
43 of 63
Plagioclimax
Plant community halted by human activity
44 of 63
Podsol
A zonal soil under coniferous forest and heath land especially on sandy, free-draining parent rock.
45 of 63
Primary Consumer
AKA Herbivores - animals that obtain their energy from eating green plants
46 of 63
Primary Succession
A process where an area is vegetated
47 of 63
Productivity
The rate of creation of living matter by photosynthesis
48 of 63
Psammosere
A succession on sand dunes
49 of 63
Regolith
Weathered rock debris
50 of 63
Salinisation
Process, by which salts are drawn to the surface by strong evaporation
51 of 63
Secondary Consumers
AKA Carnivores - meat eaters
52 of 63
Secondary Succession
A succession which occurs on a previously vegetated surface that has been distrubed
53 of 63
Sere
A stage in the development of a plant community
54 of 63
Soul Acidity/Profile/Structure/Texture
The concentration of hydrogen ions in soil/vertical section through the soil to show horizons/the arrangement of soil particles/relative proportion of sizes of clay sand and silt.
55 of 63
Succession
A series of changes that take place in a plant community over time
56 of 63
Sustainability
The capacity to endure, in ecology the word describes how biological systems remain diverse and productive over time.
57 of 63
Translocation
The movement of soil components up or down through the profile
58 of 63
Trophic Level
A level in which energy is transferred from one group of organisms to another
59 of 63
Urban Niche
Colonisation of wasteland; the development of distinctive ecologies along routeways
60 of 63
Weathering
Process which breaks down rocks in situ
61 of 63
Zonal Soils
A major group of mature soils which reflect the climate and vegetation of the area in which they are found
62 of 63
Zones
Units within biomes
63 of 63

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The factors that cause succession to be interrupted

Back

Arresting Factors

Card 3

Front

Green plants that photosynthesise to produce food to support trophic levels above them

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Immature soil with poorly developed profile eg. Volcanic soil

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or on Earth

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Ecosystems and biodiversity under threat resources »