A2 English Language Change theorists

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1. Halliday's functional theory

  • New words occur because we need them - new inventions
  • Believes functional sentences are a necessity for language change
  • Need certain function words to adapt
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2. Giles accomadation theory

  • Convergence and divergence
  • Phological and technological
  • Standerdisation and spelling

3. David Crystal

  • Descriptivist
  • Prescriptivist
  • Central

4. Aitchison's crumbling castle metaphor

  • Language should be preserved
  • Language changes because people are lazy
  • People pick up language changes to fit in with certain social groups

5. Lakoff

  • Language in women is weaker and men are more direct
  • Men seek reassurance and women are more inferior to men


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