A2 AQA Media Studies Theorists

Nicholas Abercrombie
The boundaries between different genres are shifting/Knowing what to expect makes us appreciate the unexpected.
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Rick Altman
Genres must change and innovate succeed/Genres have a purpose
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David Bordwell
Any theme may appear in any genre/Genre is hard to classify as pure
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David Buckingham
Genre is in a constant process of change/As society changes, so do genres to reflect culture
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G. Burton
Genres must contain the familiar and the unexpected
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Jacques Derrida
A text cannot belong to no genre/Every text has a genre
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Richard Dyer
Genres offer the audience escapist fantasies into fictional worlds to remove the boredom of reality.
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Jane Feuer
Genre is abstract and is becoming harder to identify
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The genre of a text influences how it is read/You interpret it to your expectations of said genre
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The text relies on the audience having knowledge on the genre
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Andrew Goodwin
Music videos share conventions with films, they contain intertextuality
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The audience already expect to know what is contained within a genre/They don't need the details explained to them
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John Hartley
The same text can belong to different genres over time or countries
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Henry Jenkins
Genres break conventional rules, they hybridise with other genres
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Deborah Knight
We emjoy imagining ourselves living the lives of other characters
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Jason Mitchell
Industries use genre to sell products to audiences by offering cultural references
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Katie Wales
We make sense of a text through our experiences of other texts
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Repeated representation of delinquent youths helps establish a dominant hegemony
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Representations are hyper-realistic
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John Berger
Where and when we see things alters our perception of it
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Judith Butler
The representations of gender are constructed and reinforced through the media
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Queer Theory
Hetereosexuality is presented as the norm whereas homosexuality is presented as deviant
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Stanley Cohen
'Moral Panic', a mass response to a group or attitude that is a threat to society
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Emile Dunkheim
The media reinforces what acts are deemed as deviant
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Barbara Fredrickson
Women are objectified and this can diminish mental health
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Representations of youths are empty because the media is often constructed by adults
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Stuart Hall
Preferred, Negotiated, Oppositional and Aberrant readings
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Youths are presented to challenge the hegemony
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Women are constructed in a male society
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Women are presented through their body and are used to advertise products in sexual poses
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Andy Medhurst
Stereotypes allow us to quickly identify a person's skills and traits
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Laura Mulvey
'Male Gaze', women are presented in a sexualised manner to appeal to a male audience
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Stereotypes are not always negative and can help portray positive ideologies
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'Hypodermic Needle', the audience are injected with the institution's values and ideologies
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Blumer and Katz
'Uses and Gratification', the audience consume the media for self-use and escapism
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Branston and Stafford
Conglomerates see a larger audience as larger profit
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The 'Hypodermic Needle' model is dependent on the consumer's psychology
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'Cultivation Theory' shows we are becoming desensitised to crime through television and film
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'Hierarchy of Needs' consumers have needs which are suplemented by the media
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Women often consume media texts whilst multi-tasking whereas men put 100% concentration into the media product
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The majority of the online audience are young and follow trends, they will mature and move on yet another audience may not replace them; this is a temporary audience.
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Jeremy Tunstall
Audiences can be indentified into: primary, secondary and tertiary
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Roland Barthes
Action Code - driving the narrative forward Enigma Code - not explaining a plotline Semantic Code - a connotation within the narrative Symbolic Code - oraganising meanings from the text Cultural Code - a social commentary
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Roland Barthes (Again)
Texts are usless until they are consumed
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Fiske (Narrative)
A meets b, something happens, order returns
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Syd Field
Setup, confrontation, resolution
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Tim O'Sullivan
Every text has a narrative
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Vladimir Propp
Eight character types: protagonist, antagonist, princess, father, dispacther, donor, sidekick, false hero
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Levi Strauss
Binary opposites model
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Equilibrium, disruption, recognition of disruption, recognition of disruption, resolution, new equilibrium
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Robert McKee
Incident, progressive complications, crisis, climax, resolution
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Institutions use 'ideological state apparatus' to reinforce hegemony
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The Frankfurt School
The mass media controls audiences to maintain capitalism and make benefit of government
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Dominant ideologies change and develop over time
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Karl Marx
Marxism: a communist hegemony, proletariat are abused and used to a means of an end by the bourgeoisie
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Raymond Williams
The media is controlled by the rich and powerful
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Tim Berners Lee
Censorship damages free expression
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Nicholas Starr
We are being replaced by technology, role of people is shrinking
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Audiences can create their own media products - a form of revolution (YouTube)
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B.J. Mendelson
"Those who shout the loudest will be heard most"
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Television is a passive medium, the internet is active because we properly engage with it
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Charlie Brooker
Post-Modernism makes it hard for us to define 'the real'
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Martin Baker
We need to see violence because it's part of society
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Frederic Jameson
Parodies and pastiches are post-modern
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Rick Altman


Genres must change and innovate succeed/Genres have a purpose

Card 3


David Bordwell


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


David Buckingham


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


G. Burton


Preview of the front of card 5
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