# A Level Research Methods

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Face validity
The extent to which test items look like what the test claims to measure.
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Mundane realism
How a study mirrors the real world. The research environment is realistic to the degree to which experiences encountered there will occur in the real world.
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Temporal validity
Concerning the ability ti generalise a research effect beyond the particular time period of the study.
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Empirical
A method of gaining knowledge which relies on direct observation or testing.
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Falsifiability
The possibility that a statement or hypothesis can be proved wrong.
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A shared set of assumptions about the subject matter of a discipline and the methods appropriate to its study.
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Alternative hypothesis
A testable statement about the relationship between two or more variables.
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Null hypothesis
An assumption there is no relationship n the population from which a sample is taken with respect to the variables being studied.
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Probability
A measure of the likelihood that certain events will occur. A statistical test gives the probabiltit that a particiular set of data didn't occur by chance.
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Type 1 Error
reject null hypothesis which is true.
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Type 2 errror
accepts a null hypothesis that is false.
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Correlation coefficient
Number between -1 and +1 that tells us how closely the co-variables in a correlational analysis are related.
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Calculated value
The value of a test statistic calculated for a particular data set.
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Critical value
the value of a test statistic that must be reached to show significance.
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Degrees of freedom
The number of values that are free to vary given that the overall total values are known.
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Levels of measurement.
The different ways of measuring items or psychological variables. The lower levels are less precise.
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One tailed test
Used with a directional hypothesis
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Two tailed test
Used with a non-directional hypothesis
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Significance
The research findings are sufficiently strong to reject the null hypothesis and accept the research hypothesis.
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Statistical test
Procedure for drawing logical conclusions (inferences) about the population from which samples are drawn.
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Test statistics
Name given to the value calculated by a statistical test. For each test the value has a specific name such as S for the sign test.
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

Mundane realism

#### Back

How a study mirrors the real world. The research environment is realistic to the degree to which experiences encountered there will occur in the real world.

### Card 3

#### Front

Temporal validity

#### Back ### Card 4

Empirical

#### Back ### Card 5

Falsifiability

#### Back 