A Level Music - Many Glossary Terms Flashcards Part 1

Da Capo Form
Ternary form, First Section of piece is complete musical entity ending in tonic key.
Second section contrasts with the first in:
- Key
- Texture
- Mood, or
- Tempo
Third section would start from the beginning again.
Da Capo Aria - Singer add ornamentation
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Central Section in Sonata Form. Describe manipulation and transformation of motifs and themes
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Notes that belong to current key (opposed to chromatic)
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Diminished 7th
Seventh, one semitone smaller than minor 7th. E.g. diminished 7th of C would be Bbb (enharmonic equivalent of A)
Also a scale built on minor thirds
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Single section of instruments are divided into many sections. Often applies to violins in orchestra section. But in choral music, soprano may split into first and second soprano
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Double time
Jazz term, One uses note values twice as fast as previously, without changing chord progression pace. Often within improvised solos
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Graphic Notation
Representation of music using virtual symbols which are not traditional music notation. Often found on vocal score by John Cage and other composers
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Very high, pure sound by placing a finger lightly on the string before plucking or bowing
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Combination of chords used in piece of music. We concentrate on vertical aspects of music (chords), as important as horizontal aspect (individual voices)
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STRONG weak weak STRONG weak weak becomes STRONG weak STRONG weak STRONG weak
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Mixolydian Mode
Type of mode. Octave of white piano notes from G to G. (G, A, B, C, D, E, F, G). Can be transposed to start on any note
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Moment Form
Originating in Karlheinz Stockhausen music, a 'mosaic of moments' is made when many independent units of music are put together in such a way that a narrative line is avoided
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Neapolitan 6th
First inversion of major triad on flattened second degree of scale. In E minor this is F major in first inversion
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Early 20th century style combining forms and techniques from 18th century, with more modern approach to elements like rhythm, harmony and instrumentation
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Many notes on instrument can be played simultaneously
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Early 17th century music form, often featuring bass ostinato and written in slow triple time.
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A piece of music (or other art form) imitating the style of another work, artist or period
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Octatonic Scale
Eight note scale. Ascending alternating tone and semitone intervals or vice versa
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Also called plainsong, chants from Western churches. Slow in character with relatively narrow range of pitches.
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Effect that creates sweeping sound through modulating phase of waveform using all pass filter, causing changing interference patterns. Often used on electric guitars and electric pianos, give slight sense of sound movement
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A bridge on a stringed instrument
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A musical term and instruction to slide from one pitch to another
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Rhythmically free vocal style, used for dialogue or opera narrative. Minimally accompanied and followed by more traditionally sung 'aria'
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Large scales movements in late-Baroque period.
Opening instrumental section (ritornello), then contrasting texture. Sections of the ritornello alternate with solo textures until the complete return (Ritornello Italian for 'a little return)
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Elaborately ornamental late Baroque style
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Genre of music with roots and influences in jazz, blues or folk. Often played on improvised or homemade instruments like washboard.
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Music on manipulations of chosen order of 12 degrees of chromatic scale. Other music instruments like note lengths and dynamics treated in same way.
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Stride piano
In character, when the left hand plays single bass note or intervals of octave, seventh or tenth on beats one and three, strides up to a chord on beats two and four.
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Also called 'Sprechgesang', form of singing, cross between song and speech. Tone quality of speech is heightened or lowered according to musical pitches on score.
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Time-based notation
Music where normal rhythm values are dispensed with and measured in seconds instead
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Tone poem
Also called 'symphonic poem', one movement piece of orchestral music to evoke non-musical source like poem or painting
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Through-sung musical
Musical without dialogue, in which all of the story is told visually, through song and music.
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Audio recording technique where a performer sings or plays along with his or her own pre-recorded performance, usually to produce bigger sound that can be achieved by single instrument
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Dominant 7th
A triad on dominant plus diatonic 7th above root.
E.g. G major dominant = D Fsharp A
G major dominant 7th = D Fsharp A C
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Piece of music performed between acts of musical/opera, like second half short overture.
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Abbreviation for equalisation.
Changes relative volume of the frequencies in recording, to relate to individual track, instrument or whole mix.
One EQ unit is made up of number of filters which increase or decrease volume of audible frequencies, bass to
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Early 20th century characterised by expression of inner fears and obsessions, often through distorted or violent artistic ideas
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Audio phenomenon that occurs when the sound of an output is recorded by input creating an infinite loop and characteristic 'howl', often rock music effect.
Intentionally created by playing a loud note on an electric guitar close to the amplifier
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Electronic effect, sometimes used with electric guitars, creates distinctive sweeping sound.

Originally produced by slowing down one tape recorded in relation to another by pressing on flange on tape spool.
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Performance without unwanted stops-and-starts or hesitation

Examiners will look for this.
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Fugal style but not to strict fugal form
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Main theme is developed by each section in turn
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Slide from one pitch to another
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Golden Section
Geometric proportion that divides a line with longer side and shorter one.

Many composers mark climatic points with the Golden Section.

Use Fibonacci numbers (each number is sum of the previous two). So 13 bar long piece would have Golden Section either
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Texture where simple, elaborated versions of same melody heard together
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One part has melodic interest, other parts accompany
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All of the movements of a piece of music have the same key
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Associated with 19th and 20th century French music.
Blurs tonality like the paintings blur objects and restore effects of light.
Chords are used more for atmosphere than with functional harmony, and exploring natural and unusual tone colours
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Accuracy of pitch whether on instrument or voice. Examiner will expect this.
Especially Wind Players!
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Splits melody or musical line between several instruments
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Also called idée fixe, it's a recurring theme, usually melodic phrase but sometimes interval or rhythm

Used throughout composition and associated with a particular character, idea or event
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Movement within modernism, opposite of minimalism; everything expanded, like orchestra size and length of musical works
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Several notes in a syllable
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Element of music created by single notes being played successively, creating horizontal dimension on stave when written down, commonly known as tune.
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Intervals smaller than semitone, often used by contemporary composers. Divided into quarter tones often (half of semitone) usually, as well as other divisions.
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Middle 8
Central 8 bars of a piece or song.

Also known as 'B' section in pop and jazz music, within common 32 bar AABA format.

Also used for similar part of non-32 bar piece, so not always 8 bars long.
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Minuet and Trio
Minuet is elegant dance in 3/4 time found mainly in music of Baroque and Classical periods in conjunction with trio
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Modes/Modal Music
Type of scale.
Church or Greek modes use seven pitches, but other types have different numbers
Major and minor are modes, but term is used for Dorian, Aeolian and Mixolydian.
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Cultural Movement of Early 20th century, rejected tradition in order to create new forms of expression that are often complex and dissonant
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Only one theme or melody, uniting sonata movements or symphony together
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Central Section in Sonata Form. Describe manipulation and transformation of motifs and themes



Card 3


Notes that belong to current key (opposed to chromatic)


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Seventh, one semitone smaller than minor 7th. E.g. diminished 7th of C would be Bbb (enharmonic equivalent of A)
Also a scale built on minor thirds


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Single section of instruments are divided into many sections. Often applies to violins in orchestra section. But in choral music, soprano may split into first and second soprano


Preview of the back of card 5
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