A Level ICT definitions

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  • Created by: abic1
  • Created on: 04-03-18 22:53
4- Code of Conduct
An understanding by an employee to follow the rules of the company and work within the specific guidelines set out by management.
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4- Teleworking
Using telecommunications to save a journey eg to save a journey abroad by using video-conferencing. Working from home using computer networks.
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5- Back-Up
Copies of software and data kept so that data can be recovered should there be a total loss of the ICT system
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5- Disaster Recovery Plan
A plan that restores ICT facilities in as short a time as possible in order to minimise the loss caused by the complete or partial loss of an organisation’s ICT facilities.
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5- Hacking
The process of trying to break into a secure computer system.
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5- Firewall
A piece of software and/ or hardware that is able to protect a network from hackers.
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5- Encryption
The process of coding files before they are sent over a network to prevent them from hackers. It is also the process of coding files stored on a computer so that if the computer was stolen, the files cannot be accessed.
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5- Uninterruptable Power Source
A backup power supply (battery and generator) which will keep the computer running should the mains power supply fail.
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5- Risk Analysis
The process of assessing the likelihood of certain events happening, and estimating the cost of the damage they could cause and what could be done at a reasonable cost to reduce or eliminate the risk.
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6- Relational Database
A large collection of data items stored in tables that are linked together by common fields (primary and foreign keys) so that the data can be accessed in many different ways by a range of different applications programs.
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6- Flat File
A simple single table database used for the storage and retrieval of data.
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6- Primary Key
A field that is used to uniquely identify/ define a particular record in an entity ( to which it has been assigned ) and can be used for searching purposes.
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6- Foreign Key
A field in one table which is the primary key in another table. Foreign keys are used to establish relationships between tables ie link tables/ entities together.
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6- Entity
An object in the real world that is relevant to an IT system eg a customer, product or service.
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6- Attribute
A single data item of data which represents a fact about an entity, adding further detail to the entity.
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6- Data Independence
The data and programs used to access it are kept separate/ data is stored seperately from the programs that use it.
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6- Data Redundancy
Refers to the unnecessary duplication of data ie storing the same item of data more than once/ in more than one place.
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6- Data Consistency
Refers to the way the data is stored and formatted to ensure that each data entry is the same in all files since the data is stored more than once/ in more than one place. If the data entry in each file is not the same, it is inconsistent.
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6- Data Integrity
Refers to the correctness/ truthfulness of the data.
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6- Normalisation
The staged mathematical process of ensuring that all data is stored in the most efficient way to reduce data redundancy and data inconsistencies.
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6- 1st Normal Form
Contains no repeating attributes or data item groups, the data is atomic eg broken down into its simplest form.
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6- 2nd Normal Form
Where there are no partial dependencies ie all fields are dependant on both parts of the compound primary key.
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6- 3rd Normal Form
Where all the fields in the table are wholly dependant on the primary key.
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6- Database Management System
A piece of software that controls access to the data in a database, acting as an interface between the data and applications programs.
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6- Data Warehouse
A huge database used to store an organisation’s mass of historical data ( collected from a variety of locations ) and specifically structured for efficient analysis and reporting. It is used to extract information that helps managers make decisions.
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6- Data Mining
The analysis of large amounts of data stored in a data warehouse by drilling down through the mass of data to look for meaningful patterns and trends to find correlations between data to provide new information.
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6- Distributed Database
Has data stored on a number of computers at different locations but appears as one logical database.
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6- Structured Query Language
Specialist language used for extracting specific information from a database eg SELETCT field list FROM table WHERE condition.
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6- Query
When the user interrogates a database by searching, sorting or filtering to find information eg a search to find all patients with asthma because they need a flu jab letter.
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6- Report
A formatted output of the results from a database, which are presented in a way that is controlled by the user ( formatted in tables/ graphs/ grouping etc) eg producing formatted lists of patients in need of screening tests.
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8- Management Information System
An organised collections of people, procedures and resources designed to support the decisions of managers.
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2- File Transfer Protocol
A standard internet protocol (way of doing things) providing a simple way of transferring files between computers using the internet.
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2- Web Crawler
A programme that automatically browses all web pages in a systematic manner, to provide up to date data about web pages in order to produce an index used by search engines to carry out fast searches.
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2- Uniform Resource Locator
The web address used to locate a web page or a website.
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2- Search Engine
Software that can be used to search for information on the internet.
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2- Distributed Computing
Where a series of computers are networked together and they each work on solving the same problem. Each computer shares data, processing, storage and bandwidth in order to solve a single problem.
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2- Bandwidth
A measure of speed at which the data can be transferred along a communication channel, which could be cable or wireless (broadband has a much higher bandwidth than dialup).
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2- Dialup
A method of connecting to the internet which makes use of a modem and a telephone line, though it only offers aa slow connection.
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2- Broadband
A fast connection to the internet which does not use a modem.
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9- Parallel Running/ Changeover
An organisation uses the new system and the old system alongside eachother for a short period of time until all the people involved with the new system are happy it works correctly.
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9- Pilot Conversion
Ideal for large organisations that have lots of locations or branches, where the new system is used by one branch then rolled out to other branches over time.
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9- Phased Conversion
A module at a time can be converted to the new system in phases until the whole system is transferred over.
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9- Direct Changeover
An organisation stops using the old system one day and starts using the new system the next day.
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9- Corrective Maintenance
Involves correcting previously undetected errors eg bugs in the software that were not discovered during testing. Eg there may be problems with reports not being printed properly.
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9- Adaptive Maintenance
The software may need to be changed due to the changing needs of the organisation. Eg changes in % for VAT.
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9- Perfective Maintenance
The performance of the software can be improved in some way. Eg macro button added to save a record to be quicker.
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9- Feasibility Study
An initial investigation carried out before a new IT system is developed to see whether a new system can be developed at an acceptable cost to realise user benefits.
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9- Feasibility Report
Summary of initial investigations to look at the likelihood of being able to create a new system with stated aims and objectives a a reasonable cost. Document is used by senior managers to assess whether it is worth continuing with the project.
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9- Data flow diagram
Shows the slow, storage and processing of data in a system.
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9- Systems Diagram
Provides a pictorial representation of how an IT system works by showing inputs to the system, actions taken to process data and its outputs. Eg how to log on.
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9- Decision Table
Provides a way of displaying the actions to be taken when specific conditions occur.
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9- Entity Relationship Diagram
Identifies the components of a system ie the data entries and the relationships between them. Eg one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-many.
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9- Data Dictionary
Dictionary about data stored in a relational database ie a central store of information about the data such as table names, validations, field lengths and relationships between the tables, all ensure consistency.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Using telecommunications to save a journey eg to save a journey abroad by using video-conferencing. Working from home using computer networks.

Back

4- Teleworking

Card 3

Front

Copies of software and data kept so that data can be recovered should there be a total loss of the ICT system

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A plan that restores ICT facilities in as short a time as possible in order to minimise the loss caused by the complete or partial loss of an organisation’s ICT facilities.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The process of trying to break into a secure computer system.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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