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Define gene technology
techniques that allow the study and alteration of genes and their functions
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What is a genome?
all the genetic material in an organism
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Briefly outline the chain termination method
1. mixture in four separate tubes 2. tubes undergo PCR 3. DNA fragments separated by electrophoresis
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What is the mixture that is added to the test tubes in the chain termination method?
a single stranded DNA template/ DNA polymerase - enzyme that joins them together/ lots of DNA primer - short pieces of DNA/ free nucleotides/ fluorescently labelled modified nucleotide - a different nucleotide in each tube
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What is PCR? How is it used
Polymerase chain reaction/ produces many strands of DNA/ strands of different lengths/ each one terminates at a different point depending on where the modified nucleotide is added
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Outline how DNA fragments are separated by electrophoresis
fragments are viewed under UV light/ complementary base sequence can be read from the gel/ smallest sequence at bottom of gel/ each band after the smallest represents one more base added/ read from bottom upwards
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How is modern DNA sequencing carried out?
done in one tube in an automated DNA sequencer, computer can read it out
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How can a whole genome be sequenced?
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What are the pros of comparing genomes?
genome wide comparisons between individuals and between species/ understand evolutionary relationships/ DNA can illustrate how closely related/ how genes interact during development/ useful in medical research
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What are the uses of interspecies genome comparisons?
helps trace early morning migration/ helps study of genetics and early human diseases/ helps develop medical treatments for particular genotypes
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What is recombinant DNA?
DNA formed by joining together DNA from different sources
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What is a transformed organism?
organisms that have has their DNA altered by genetic engineering that contain recombinant DNA
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Outline genetic engineering
extraction of gene from one organism an inserting it into another/ transformed organisms gene will ten produce protein coded for that gene
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What is vector DNA?
something used to transfer DNA into a cell e.g. a plasmid (small circular molecules of DNA in bacteria)/ bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria)
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How is a host cell transformed?
vector place into host bacteria/ if it is a bacteriophage they will infect bacteria host by injecting DNA into it
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Outline the heat shock method
ice cold solution to make permeable then plasmids added as heated for 1-2 mins
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Outline the electroporation method
electric shock makes bacteria temporarily permeable to DNA
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How do you identify transformed cells?
marker genes inserted into vectors ...
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What are the benefits of takin up plasmids?
some microorganisms can naturally takes up plasmids/ contain useful genes/ antibiotic resistance/ microorganisms can use different nutrients/ help microorganisms invade hosts
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Outline electrophoresis
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outline how human insulin is produced
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Outline the polymerase chain reaction
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What is Golden Rice?
rice genetically engineered to contain gene from a maize plant and a gene from soil bacterium/ together they enable rice tp produce beta-carotene
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Why was Golden Rice developed?
beta-carotene is required by our bodies to produce vit A/ reduce deficiency in areas where there is a shortage of dietary vitamins/ liked to over 2 million deaths a year/ blindness etc
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Outline how golden rice is produced
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What is Xenotransplantation?
the transfer of cells, tissues or organs from one species to another
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Why is Xenotransplantation done?
hope that it can provide animal donor organs for humans/ immune rejection greater than that of transplants/ DNA must be altered so that cell surface proteins ar more similar to humans
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Outline the ways in which Xenotransplantation can be done
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What is gene therapy?
possible treatment option for genetic disorders and some cancers that involves altering defective alleles inside cells
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What is somatic gene therapy
possible treatment option for genetic disorders and some cancers that involves altering defective genes inside body cells/ does not affect gametes so offspring could still inherit disease
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What is germ line gene therapy
a possible cure for for genetic disorders and some cancers that involves altering defective genes inside sex cells (gametes)/ every cell of offspring is affected/ currency illegal in humans
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What are the advantages of gene therapy?
prolong lives of people with life threatening genetic disorder/ give people with genetic disorders better quality of life/ germ could allow people to have baby wo disease/ decrease n of genetic disorders and cancers beneficial for society
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What are the disadvantages of gene therapy?
body could identify vectors as foreign and immune response/allele inserted in the wrong place-cause cancer/ allele over expressed producing too much/ disorders caused by multiple difficult to treat/multiple treatment/hard to get into speci body cells
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What issues are there surrounding genetic engineering?
anti biotic resistant marker genes increase resistance/GM crops exploit farmers to carry out monoculture decreasing biodiversity/xenotransplantation cause animals suffering/superweeds/genetic underclass of humans/ gene therapy issues
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What gene therapy issues are there?
treating cosmetic effects/ very expensive/ health service resources could be better spent ion other treatment that have passed clinical trials
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is a genome?


all the genetic material in an organism

Card 3


Briefly outline the chain termination method


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Card 4


What is the mixture that is added to the test tubes in the chain termination method?


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Card 5


What is PCR? How is it used


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