5.2.2 BIOTECH

HideShow resource information
What is biotechnology?
the industrial use of living organisms (plants or living organisms) to produce food, drugs and other products
1 of 34
Why are microorganisms often used in biotechnological processes?
ideal growth conditions easily created/ grow rapidly under the right conditions/ grow on a range of inexpensive materials/ all year round/ genetic modification easy/ complex processes hard for chemical means
2 of 34
What are intracellular enzymes?
enzymes contained in the cells of organism
3 of 34
What are isolated enzymes? what is the problem with using them?
enzymes that are not contained within cells// can become mixed in with the products of reaction, expensive to remove
4 of 34
What are extracellular enzymes?
secreted naturally by microorganisms, often needing to be extracted- can be expensive
5 of 34
what are immobilised enzymes? why are they used?
used instead of isolated/ attached to insoluble materials so they do not mix with the products/ more stable than than free enzymes, less likely to denature
6 of 34
How are enzymes immobilised?
encapsulated in jelly like alginate beads/ trapped in silica gel matrix/ covalently bonded to cellulose or collagen fibres
7 of 34
What are the advantages of using enzymes in industry?
columns are washed and reused, reduce cost of industrial reaction/ product isn't mixed - no need to extract/
8 of 34
Outline the function of enzyme columns
immunised enzymes where the reactant substrate solution run through/ active sites still available to catalyse reaction but solution flowing out will only contain products
9 of 34
What is a culture?
population that has been grown under controlled conditions
10 of 34
What is a closed culture?
a culture which has been grown in a vessel thats isolated from the external environment
11 of 34
Describe a closed culture
population of microorganisms follow a standard growth curve
12 of 34
Describe a standard growth curve
...
13 of 34
What are the limiting factors of growth curves?
availability of nutrients/ availability of oxygen/ presence of possibly toxic waste products
14 of 34
What is a metabolite?
a substance that is formed during a metabolic reaction
15 of 34
What is a primary metabolite? when are they formed?
a small molecule produced during a metabolic reaction which is essential for growth/ formed when rowing conditions are optimum (exponential)
16 of 34
What is a secondary metabolite? when are they formed?
a molecule produced during a metabolic reaction which is not essential for growth but is useful in other ways/ grown when conditions are less than favourable/ help the microorganisms to survive/ some desirable in industry processes
17 of 34
How do you find if a metabolite is primary or secondary?
if it is mostly produced after the main growth phase is it secondary as it isn't essential for growth
18 of 34
What is the use of a fermentation vessel?
cultures of microorganisms are grown in them/ conditions are kept optimum for growth/ maximises yield of desirable products from the microorganisms
19 of 34
Outline pH as a factor in fermenation vessel use
pH probe/ enzymes can work effectively/ high rate of reaction
20 of 34
Outline temp as a factor in fermenation vessel use
kept at optimum by water jacket that surround the vessel/ enzymes work efficiently
21 of 34
Outline oxygen supply as a factor in fermentation vessel use
optimum level for respiration/ sterile air is pumped in when needed/ organisms can always respire to provide energy for growth
22 of 34
Outline nutrient concentration as a factor in fermentation vessel use
kept in contact with fresh medium by paddles that circulate medium around vessel/ needed for growth
23 of 34
Outline contamination as a factor in fermentation vessel use
sterilised between uses with superheated steam to kill any unwanted organisms/ eliminates competition between organisms
24 of 34
What is batch culture?
microorganism are grown in individual batches in a fermentation vessel, when one culture ends, it is removed and a new culture is grown
25 of 34
Outline batch culture
closed system, fixed amounts/ goes through lag exponential stationary phase/ used when secondary metabolites want to be produced
26 of 34
What are the pros and cons of batch culture?
product yield is relatively low - stopping reaction and sterilising means period of time when nothing harvested/ if contamination occurs it only affects one batch, not very expensive to discard
27 of 34
What is continuous culture?
microorganisms are continuously grown in a fermentation vessel without stopping
28 of 34
Outline continuous culture
growth medium flows at a steady rate/constant open supply of fresh nutrients/goes through lag phase but is kept at exponential growth phase/ product continuously taken out at steady rate/usually when primary met or micro wanted as product
29 of 34
What are the pros and cons of continuous culture?
product yield is relatively high/ if culture contaminated whole lot must be discarded/ very expensive/
30 of 34
Why is asepsis used in the manipulation of microorganisms?
process of preventing contamination by unwanted organisms/ can affect growth of dependent microorganisms/ in labs can give inaccurate results
31 of 34
Outline some aseptic techniques
disinfecting work surfaces/ wearing gloves/ tying hair back/ sterilising equipment/ necks of cultures briefly flamed before opening causing air to move out, prevent some falling in/ pasteurisation
32 of 34
What is pasteurisation? describe it
process of sterilising food/ food is heated to temp which is high to kill/ but not high enough to kill chemistry / cooled after
33 of 34
What is the purpose of pasteurisation?
kills unwanted organisms that may be harmful to humans or compete with others to reduce yield/ denatures enzymes that could spoil food
34 of 34

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why are microorganisms often used in biotechnological processes?

Back

ideal growth conditions easily created/ grow rapidly under the right conditions/ grow on a range of inexpensive materials/ all year round/ genetic modification easy/ complex processes hard for chemical means

Card 3

Front

What are intracellular enzymes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are isolated enzymes? what is the problem with using them?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are extracellular enzymes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all BIOTECHNOLOGY resources »