4.4.1 RESPIRATION

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What is respiration?
process where energy stored in organic molecules is used to male ATP
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why do organisms require energy?
to power their biological processes (metabolism)// all organism respire - transferring energy from organic molecules such as glucose and fat to ATP// energy for active transport, biosynthesis and movement
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What does ATP stand for?
Adenosine Triphosphate
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What is ATP?
universal energy currency// provides immediate source of energy for biological processes// is not stored or transported between cells// base adenine, ribose sugar and 3 phosphate groups
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How does ATP provide energy?
phosphates can be removed by hydrolysis to relate 30kJ of energy// energy is released in small packets to prevent cell damage and energy wastage
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What is a coenzyme?
molecules that aid the function of an enzyme by transferring a chemical group from one molecule to another // aid in oxidation and reduction
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How does the coenzyme NAD aid respiration?
assists dehydrogenase enzyme// accepts two H atoms and become reduced// glycolysis, link reaction and krebs cycle// rNAD carry e to the electron transport chain for oxidation phosphorylation and H+ for chemiosmosis
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How does coenzyme A aid respiration?
(CoA)// carries acetate groups// occurs when pyruvate from glycolysis is converted into acetate in the link reaction and must be transported to the Krebs cycle
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Briefly outline the steps of aerobic respiration
1. Glycolysis // 2. The Link Reaction // 3. The Krebs Cycle // 4. Oxidative Phosphorylation
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What is glycolysis?
first stage aerobic respiration, where glucose is converted into pyruvate
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where does glycolysis take place?
the cytoplasm
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Outline the process of glycolysis
...
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what is phosphorylation?
the process of adding phosphate to a molecule, occurs in first few steps of glycolysis
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What are the products of glycolysis?
2x pyruvate // 2x NADH2 // 2xATP
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Where does respiration take place?
mitochondria
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How are mitochondria adapted to their function?
inner mem is folded into cristae, increases SA- has many electron carriers and ATP synthase enzymes// outer mem contain protein channels that allow the passage of molecules like pyruvate// metrix contains all the reactants and enzymes needed for Kreb
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What is the Link reaction? where does it occur?
second stag elf aerobic respiration where pyruvate is converted into acetyl coenzyme A// mitochondrial matrix
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Outline the stages of the Link reaction
...
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What is the Krebs Cycle?
the third stage or aerobic respiration it is a series of oxidation-reduction reactions that produces reduced coenzymes and ATP
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Outline the stages of the Krebs Cycle
...
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What is produced in the Krebs Cycle?
2xCO2/ 1xATP/ 3xNADH2/ 1xFADH - 2x this as two molecules of pyruvate produced
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?What is oxidative phosphorylation? where does it occur?
final stag elf aerobic respiration energy carried by electrons from reduced coenzymes us used to make ATP// takes place is cristae
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Outline the stages of oxidative phosphorylation
...
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What experimental evidence is there for chemiosmosis?
ATP not made in presence of antibiotic which prevents flow of protons through ion channel part of ATP synthase/ pH of intermem space is lower that that of matrix due to H+ pumps/ mitoblasts - mito with no outer mem, no ATP suggests intermem needed
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Why is the yield of ATP always less that expected?
respiratory substrates not always oxidised completely/ some H atoms leak across mito mem so smaller proton motive force/ some ATP used to actively transport pyruvate to mito
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How many ATP are estimated to be made in respiration?
30-38 molecules
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Why does anaerobic respiration produce a much lower yield of ATP than aerobic?
only glycolysis occurs - Oxygen cannot be final electron acceptor// only 2x ATP fro each glucose // pyruvate does not enter mito
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Outline anaerobic respiration in mammals
...
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What is a respiratory substrate?
any biological molecule that can be broken down in respiration to release energy
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list the relative energy release of substrates from highest to lowest
lipids -> proteins -> carbohydrates
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What does the energy store of a substrate depend on?
the number of hydrogen atoms per mole, more hydrogen the more NAD cane reduced and used in the e transport chain
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Card 2

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why do organisms require energy?

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to power their biological processes (metabolism)// all organism respire - transferring energy from organic molecules such as glucose and fat to ATP// energy for active transport, biosynthesis and movement

Card 3

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What does ATP stand for?

Back

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Card 4

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What is ATP?

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Card 5

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How does ATP provide energy?

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