4.2.1 AMINO ACIDS AND CHIRALITY

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What is a zwitterion?
a dipolar ion which has both a negative and positive charge in different parts of the same molecule
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What is an isoelectric point?
the pH at which a compound exist as a zwitterion
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How do R groups affect the isoelectric points of zwitterions?
basicity etc.
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How do slightly more acidic conditions affect the zwitterions of alpha amino acids?
the -Nh2 group will gain a proton but COOH will not change
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How do slightly more alkaline condition affect zwitterions?
COOH will lose H but NH2 will not chnage
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How are polymers of amino acids formed? what is their name?
polypeptide/ condensation reaction - OH from carboxylic acid and H from amine
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What is a protein?
one or more polypeptides folded into a 3D structure
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How are proteins broken down?
hydrolysis / acid or base
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Outline the base hydrolysis of polypeptides
2nNaOH produces 2n amino acids/ the H in the cOOH is replaced by a metal cation ion to form a carboxylate salt
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Outline the acid hydrolysis of polypeptides
2nH2O with Hal catalyst/ produces 2n amino acids - water breaks the peptide bond
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What are optical isomers?
non-superimposable mirror images about an organic chiral centre
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What is a chiral centre?
four different groups attached to a carbon atom
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Describe the shape of a chiral carbon
tetrahedral - 2 on plane 1 in and 1 out/ 2 on the same plane are next to each other ...
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what is stereoisomerism?
same structural formula but has a different arrangement in space
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Card 2

Front

What is an isoelectric point?

Back

the pH at which a compound exist as a zwitterion

Card 3

Front

How do R groups affect the isoelectric points of zwitterions?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How do slightly more acidic conditions affect the zwitterions of alpha amino acids?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How do slightly more alkaline condition affect zwitterions?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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