4.1.3 CARBOXYLIC ACIDS AND ESTERS

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Describe the water solubility of carboxylic acids
polar molecules/ e from C atoms are drawn towards EN O - produces dipoles/ makes small COOh very soluble - form H bonds with H2O/ partially dissociates to a carboxylate ion and H+
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Describe the reactions of carboxylic acids with metals, carbonates and bases
metal - MASH/ carbonates - salt + H2O + CO2/ neutralised by bases to produce salt and water
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What is the carboxylic acid suffix when it is a salt?
-oate
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Describe the esterification of carboxylic acids
heat COOh with OH in presence of strong acid catalyst/ condensation reaction/ reversible/ separates as it forms can be distilled/ larger must be reflux
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why can't all esters be made from carboxylic acids?
aromatic compounds etc. will not react with COOH
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What is the alternative method to produce an ester? explain it
acid anhydride/ much more reactive/ produces an ester and COOH/ alcohol always loses the H/ distilled/ no catalyst
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Outline the hydrolysis of esters
split up by water/ acid and base hydrolysis/ both produce OH and another
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describe the acid hydrolysis of esters
split into COOH and OH/ reflux and dilute acid [H+] catalyst / reversible/ needs lots of water to push
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describe the base hydrolysis of esters
reflux with dilute alkali OH-/ ions from base react with ester/ carboxylate ion and alcohol/ can produce salts
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What are the uses of esters?
sweet smell - perfumes/ adding scents to products/ food industry flavourings in drinks and sweets/ natural occurring esters in flowers
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What are fatty acids?
COOH with long hydrocarbon chains/ can be saturated or unsaturated
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What are triglycerides?
triester of glycerol (propane 1,2,3-triol) and fatty acids/ animal fats and veg oils
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How do you name a fatty acid?
count number of C and any =/ COUNT FROM COOH/ if saturated anoic acid/ unsaturated enoic
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What is the shorthand method of naming fatty acids
write n of C/ count n of double bonds - write number after n of C after a , and where they are in ( )
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Describe the cis and trans nature of fatty acids
almost all naturally occurring FA that are unsat are cis/ trans are almost all product of human processing - hydrogenation to raise mp of solid fats etc.
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What is the link between cholesterol and trans fats? what are trans fats?
increase bad cholesterol and decrease good/ made from triglycerides from trans FA/ man made
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What is the link between cholesterol and sat fats?
increase bad cholesterol - animal products etc,
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What are the risks of too much bad cholesterol?
clogs blood vessels - risk of heart attacks and coronary heart disease
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What is the link between cholesterol and unsat fats?
decrease bad/
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What is biodiesel?
renewable fule made form veg oil/ animal fats that can be used in diesel engines
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Describe what biodiesel is
mixture of methyl and ethyl ester of fatty acids/ react triglycerides with methanol/ ethanol in the presence of KOH
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explain the production of biodiesel
low grade veg oils/ waste form shops and processing/ mixed with diesel to make B20 as 100% required converted engines/ large areas of land needed for crops, developing countries may grow instead for £ and cause famine etc.
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Card 2

Front

Describe the reactions of carboxylic acids with metals, carbonates and bases

Back

metal - MASH/ carbonates - salt + H2O + CO2/ neutralised by bases to produce salt and water

Card 3

Front

What is the carboxylic acid suffix when it is a salt?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe the esterification of carboxylic acids

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

why can't all esters be made from carboxylic acids?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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