3.1- Exchange Surfaces and Breathing

  • Created by: McTighe
  • Created on: 18-04-18 11:24
Do single-celled organisms have a small or large surface area- volume ratio?
Large
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Give an example of an single celled organism?
Amoeba
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Do multi-cellular organisms have a small or large surface area-volume ratio?
Small
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How do insects get oxygen?
Through Spiracles in their legs
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How do spiracles help insects?
Increases rate of respiration so high metabolism
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Why do many organisms need a range of tissues?
To give body support and strength
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How do fish get oxygen?
Through gills
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What type of circulatory system do fish have? (Single or Double)
Single
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Describe the fish circulatory system
Gills --> Two chamber heart --> Tissues
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What type of circulatory system do mammals have? (Single or Double)
Double
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Why do mammals need extra respiration?
For warmth
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What three aspects makes a good exchange system?
-Good blood supply -Large surface area -Thin barrier
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How does a large surface area help form a good exchange system?
Provides more space for molecules to pass through at one time (Folds also increase surface area)
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How does a good blood supply help form a good exchange system?
Brings fresh supply of molecules to one side (Keeping conc. high), and removes molecules from other side (keeping conc. low). Maintains steep gradient so rapid diffusion occurs
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How does a thin barrier help form a good exchange system?
Reduces distance molecules have to travel over, so quicker diffusion. Also creates a barrier permeable to substances being exchanged
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What are the lungs protected by?
Ribcage
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What is found inbetween ribs?
Intercostal muscles
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Describe the process of Inhalation
Diaphragm contracts and external muscles push ribs up and out. This causes a increase in volume of lungs, decreasing pressure. Air rushes in from high pressure to low pressure (Down pressure gradient)
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Describe the process of Exhalation
Elastic recoil of alveoli. Diaphram and intercostal muscles relax, allowing ribs to fall down and in. Reduces volume of lungs, so higher pressure. Air is pushed out (From high pressure to low pressure)
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How do gases move through walls of alveoli?
Diffusion
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How do the lungs create a large surface area for diffusion?
Each alveoli is small, but numerous number of alveoli create large surface area. More gases diffuse at one time, so higher rate of diffusion
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How big an alveolus?
100-300um
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How do lungs create a thin diffusion surface?
Walls of alveolar are on cell thick. Consists of squamous Epithelial tissue so distance is short. Close to capillary (also one cell thick). Capillaries are narrow so red blood cells squeeze against capillary wall, making them closer to air in alveoli
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How do lungs maintain a steep concentration gradient?
Due to good blood supply. Carbon dioxide transported from tissue to alveoli. Ensures high concentration in blood, so diffuses from high concentration to low concentration. Oxygen opposite
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How do lungs create ventilation?
Used air is replaced with fresh air. ENsure conc. of oxygen is higher in alveoli, and ensure co2 is higher in blood. Conc. gradient is maintained
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What are the three main parts of airways?
Trachea, Bonchi and bronchioles
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Name three aspects the airways must be
-Large enough to allow suffient air to flow without obstruction -Supported to prevent collapse when air pressure is low -Flexible to allow movement
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What tissue lines the airways?
Ciliated Epithelium
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How does ciliated epithelium help proctect the lungs?
Goblet cells produce mucus to trap pathogens. Cilia move mucus to top of airway, where it is swallowed
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What other type of tissue produces mucus?
Glandular tissue
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How does the structure of Trachea and Bronchi vary?
Bronchi is slightly narrower
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What supports the trachea and Bronchi?
Rings of cartilage
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What is the function of cartilage?
C-shape rings to prevent trachea and bronchi collapsing during inspiration. C-shape allows flexibility and provide space for oesophagus to expand when swallowing
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What is the function of smooth muscle?
Allows lumen to constrict by contracting. Prevents harmful substances being breathed in
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What is the function of loose tissue?
Contains elastic fibres for lumen to dilate, as well as glands and blood vessels
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What is the function of ciliated epithelium?
Goblet cells secrete muscus, wafted by cilia and prevented substances entering lungs.
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How do Bronchioles differ from trachea or bronchi?
They are much narrower with less cartilage. The walls are mainly made up of smooth muscle and elastic fibres
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How do the smooth muscle and elastic fibres help bronchioles to function?
Smooth muscle contracts, constricting airways. Lumen of airway narrows, restricting air to alveoli. It is then elongated by elastic fibres. As muscle relaxes, elastic fibres recoil to original size and shape, dilating airway
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What is a Spirometer used for?
Used to measure capacity of lungs (Measure movement in and out of lungs)
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What is a float-chamber spirometer?
Consists of air or medical grade oxygen floating on tank of water
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name 5 precautions needed when using spirometers?
-Subject should be healthy and free from asthma -Soda lime should be fresh and functioning -No air leaks in apparatus -Mouthpiece is steralized -Water chamber not overfilled (Correct volume)
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What is the total lung capacity?
Maximum quantity of air that lungs can hold
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How would you calculate total lung capacity?
Vital capacity + Residual Volume
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What is the vital capacity?
Maximum volume of air that can be moved by lungs in one breath
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What may cause vital capacity to vary?
Gender, age, size of person, level of excersise
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What is the residual volume?
Volume of air which remains in lungs after breathing
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Why does some air remain in lungs after breathing?
They can never be fully empty in alveoli, bronchi and trachea
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What is the tidal volume?
Volume of air in and out with each breath (at rest)
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What is the inspiratory reserve volume?
The maximum amount of additional air drawn into lungs
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What is the expiratory reserve volume?
The additional amount of air that can be expired from lungs
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What is the purpose of Soda lime?
Absorbes CO2, decreasing the volume of air
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What two factors does oxygen uptake depend on?
Breathing rate and Depth of Breath
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What is the purpose of Soda lime?
Absorbes CO2, decreasing the volume of air
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What two factors does oxygen uptake depend on?
Breathing rate and Depth of Breath
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What is the breathing rate?
How many breaths per minute
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How is breathing rate found on a graph?
Calculating peaks, and working out how many are produced in a minute.
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How do gills help is gaseous exchange in fish?
Gills absorb oxygen dissolved in water, and release co2. They have a large surface area due to numerous folds
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How many gills do most fish have?
5 pairs
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What is the plate called which covers the gills?
The operculum
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What do gills consist of?
Two rows of gill filaments attached to bony arch
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What is the name of the flow is fish which help maintain concentration gradients across lamellae?
Countercurrent flow
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How does the countercurrent flow work?
blood flows in opposite direction to water, so always flows next to water that has more oxygen. Oxygen diffuses from water into blood, s
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How do bony fish maintain ventilation?
Gill Irrigation. This is done by water flowing over gills by using a buccal-opercular pump
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How does gill irrigation work?
1.FIsh opens moth, lowering floor of buccal cavity so water flows in 2.FIsh closes mouth, floor of buccal cavity rises, decreasing volume so pressure increases, forcing water through gills 3.Fish opens mouth, buldges operculum
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CONTINUED
and decreasing pressure in Operculum cavity, so water drawn back over gills 4. Opercula flaps open and operculum contracts forcing water out
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Do fish have a closed or open circulatory system?
Closed
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Why do Fish need less energy than mammals?
They do not maintain body temperature and tend to be less active
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Where does blood become oxygenated in fish?
Gills (Through gill capillaries)
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What is the name of the system which allows insects to allows oxygen to be delived to tissues?
air-filled tracheal system
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What is the segment called where air enters an insect?
Spiracle
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Where is the spiracle found?
Surface of Abdomen
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What are the tubes called found in the spiracles?
Trachea
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What do the trachea branch into?
Tracheoles
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What is found at the end of the Tracheoles?
Tracheal Fluid
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Where does gas exchange occur in insects?
Between Tracheoles and Tracheal Fluid
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What happens to the tracheal fluid during Inspiration?
More fluid is drawn to muscle tissue to increase surface area for trachea wall exposed to air, so more oxygen can be absorbed.
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DO insects have a closed or open circulatory system?
Open
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What is the blood called, not found in the blood vessels?
Hemolymph
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Describe the shape of the heart in an insect
Long, muscular tube
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Where about is the heart found in an insect?
Just under the dorsal side
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What are the pores called where blood enters the heart?
Ostia
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Where is blood pumped after the heart?
Towards the heard by Peristalsis (Pushing blood into aorta)
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Where is blood pushed out into the body cavity?
Anterior end
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How do flexible walls in the tracheal system help ventilation?
The flexible walls act as air sacs which can be squeezed by the action of flight muscles. Repetitive expansion and contraction of these sacs help ventilation
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How does wing movement help ventilation?
Wing movement decreases volume in Thorax. As volume decreases, air in tracheal system is put under pressure and pushed out of tracheal system
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How can locusts ventilate themselves?
They can open/close valves and control volume of abdomen by specialised breathing movements. As abdomen expands, spiracles at front end of body open and air enters the tracheal system. As it decreases spiracles at rear end of body open so air leaves
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Card 5

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