2. Classification

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Define 'Classification'
Sorting living organisms into groups based on similarities of characteristics.
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Define 'Natural Classification'
Grouping living organisms based on evolutionary relationships
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Define 'Taxonomy'
Study of principles of classification (the differences between species)
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Define 'Phylogeny'
Study of evolutionary relationships between species
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Difference between taxonomy and classification and phylogeny?
Classification is the process, taxonomy is HOW we decide to group our organisms and phylogeny is what information we can gain from the process
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What are the five kingdoms?
Protocists, Animals, Plants, Fungi and Prokaryotes.
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Features of Prokaryotes
No nucleus, naked DNA, smaller ribosomes, ATP made in mesosomes, smaller than eukaryotes
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Features of Protocists
Eukaryotes, mostly single celled, plant and animal like features, free living, autotrophic and heterotrophic
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Features of Fungi
Eukaryotic, chitin wall, saprotrophic (absorbs from dead/decaying matter), hyphae, spores
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Features of Plants
Eukaryotic, autotrophic, cellulose cell wall, choloroplasts
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Features of Animals
Eukaryotic, heterotrophic, multicellular, fertilised eggs develop in ball called blastula
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Modern classification system?
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
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Why do we use the binomial system of nomenclature for naming organisms?
- Different countries have different common names - Use of different languages - Better to have internationally accepted name
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Basics of binomial naming system
FIRST PART: Genus name with capital letter SECOND PART: Species with a lower case letter
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What's the dichotomous key?
Used to identify unknown species
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Classification systems used to be based on observable features...
But in more recent studies, we draw on a wider range of evidence to clarify relationships between organisms (fungi can't move - they're not animals).
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Biochemistry
Allowed us to look at DNA and RNA sequences to give us new information about things that appeared to be bacteria.
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How are Archea and Bacteria different?
Difference in DNA, RNA and lipid structure
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Similarities between Archea and Eukaryotes
Similar DNA replication mechanism, both have DNA proteins
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Difference in 3 domain 5 kingdom classification system?
Kingdoms on observable features and Domains on recent biochemical evidence. We look at presence of protein Cytochome C as it's a protein associated with respiration and most organisms carry that out. Similar protein sequence means fewer mutations.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define 'Natural Classification'

Back

Grouping living organisms based on evolutionary relationships

Card 3

Front

Define 'Taxonomy'

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Define 'Phylogeny'

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Difference between taxonomy and classification and phylogeny?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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