2.2.1 Alcohols

HideShow resource information
What is the general formula of alcohols?
CnH2n+1OH
1 of 20
Describe the volatility of alcohols
have ability to form H bonds between molecules
2 of 20
Describe the solubility of alcohols
smaller alcohols (up to 3C) are soluble in water as can form H bonds// longer the chain less soluble
3 of 20
What are the uses of alcohols?
ethanol in alcoholic drinks // ethanol solvent in methylated spirits // methanol petrol additive // feedstock for production of organic chemicals
4 of 20
How do you make ethanol form sugars?
C6H12O6 -> C2H5OH 2CO2 // yeast, no air, 30-40oC
5 of 20
How do you make a ketone?
oxidise secondary alcohol // heat under reflux // potassium dichromate and dilute sulphuric acid
6 of 20
How do you make an aldehyde?
partial oxidation of primary // distil
7 of 20
What colour change in seen during oxidation?
orange - green
8 of 20
How do you make a carboxylic acid?
complete oxidation of primary // heat under reflux
9 of 20
how is ethanol produced from ethene?
hydration // cracking fraction of crude oil with steam
10 of 20
Describe the reaction that produces an alcohol from an alkene
hydration reaction // with water // high temp (steam), high pressure, strong acid catalyst
11 of 20
What are the pros and cons of the hydration of alkenes?
PRO - fast/ pure product/ continuous- cheaper man power// CONS - high tech equipment/ expensive/ ethene not renew// high costs due to Pa
12 of 20
describe the fermentation of sugars into ethanol
38oC optimum temp// yeast living so low temps slow process / high will kill // anaerobic as otherwise extra reactions
13 of 20
What are the pros and cons of the production of ethanol from sugars?
PRO - renewable source// uses low level tech// temps not too high // cheap equipment /// CONS - batch process slow/ high production costs// ethanol made needs to be purified// depletes land use for crops
14 of 20
How do you make an ester?
alcohol + carboxylic acid // song acid catalyst // reflux // one H2O produced
15 of 20
How do you make an alkene from an alcohol?
dehydration // strong acid catalyst // reflux // eliminates one H2O
16 of 20
how do you classify halogenoalkanes?
primary/ secondary/ tertiary
17 of 20
what is a nucleophile
electron pair acceptor
18 of 20
Describe the formation of an alcohol from a halogenoalkane
nucleophilic substitution with aqueous OH ions // NaOH or KOH(aq)// reflux
19 of 20
what does the rate of hydrolysis depend on?
strength of the C-halogen bond (dipoles) F is slowest
20 of 20

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe the volatility of alcohols

Back

have ability to form H bonds between molecules

Card 3

Front

Describe the solubility of alcohols

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the uses of alcohols?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How do you make ethanol form sugars?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all Green Chemistry resources »