2.2 River Landscapes

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River Drainage Basin
area of land where rain collects.
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Watershed
area of high land forming the edge of the river basin.
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Channel
where a river flows to, with banks and a bed.
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Confluence
point at which two rivers meet.
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Mouth
the end of a river, either a lake or sea.
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Tributary
small river or stream that joins a larger river.
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Source
where a river begins.
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Attrition
the load itself being carried bang into each other and break up, becoming smaller.
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Corrasion (Abrasion)
material is rubbing against the bed and river banks, wearing them away.
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Corrosion (Solution)
rock particles are dissolved in the water and carried along without being seen.
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Hydraulic Action
the sheer force of the water removes material from the bank and bed of the river.
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Traction
large boulders are 'rolled' along the river bed.
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Saltation
smaller pebbles and stones are 'bounced' along the river bed.
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Suspension
smaller particles of silt and sand are transported along in the water.
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Solution
some rocks dissolve in the water if it is slightly.
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Waterfalls
waterfalls are normally found in the steep upper course. they occur when the soft rock which is below harder rock is eroded away.
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Gorges
gorges form as the waterfall erodes back upstream.
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Meanders
meanders are bends in the river that form in the middle course due to lateral erosion
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Oxbow Lake
oxbow lakes occur once the curve of the river is cut off from the remainder of the river after the river takes the shortest course through the neck.
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Levees
levees are formed after flood when sediment is deposited on the banks of the river.
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Delta
deltas are formed downstream when deposition is deposited to create new channels called distributaries.
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Human Factors of Flooding
land use of the river basin and human activity, such as urbanisation and deforestation.
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Physical Factors of Flooding
type and amount of precipitation and type of soil and underlying rock.
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Channel Straightening (Channelisation)
increases speed of water flow which reduces flooding as water drains downstream quicker.
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Dams
huge walls built across the river to control the amount of discharge. water is caught in the reservoir and steadily released.
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Land Use Zoning
governments allocate areas of land for different uses, according to the level of flood risk.
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Afforestation
trees are planted in the drainage basin as they intercept rainfall, reducing amount of water that can reach the river.
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Washlands
areas of the floodplain which are allowed to flood.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

area of high land forming the edge of the river basin.

Back

Watershed

Card 3

Front

where a river flows to, with banks and a bed.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

point at which two rivers meet.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

the end of a river, either a lake or sea.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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