2.1 Coastal Landscapes

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Backwash
when the water has lost energy further up the beach, so runs back down again (under gravity).
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Swash
when waves break and water rushes up the beach due to loss of energy.
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Destructive Waves
power to erode beaches; big waves which break with lots of energy and force; high frequency; high and steep with a short wavelength, and backwash is greater than swash, so beach is eroded.
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Constructive Waves
break on shore, depositing sediment on coastline; low frequency; weak, short, small waves with long wavelength; swash is greater than backwash, so deposits sediment on beach.
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Hydraulic Action
water and air are forced into the cracks in the rocks. pressure causes the rocks to shatter.
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Attrition
rocks bash together, breaking into smaller pieces, ending up as shingle or sand.
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Solution (Corrosion)
water dissolves soluble material from the rock.
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Abrasion (Corrasion)
sand, pebbles and stones scrape against the rock, wearing it away.
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Fetch
the length of water the wind blows over. the shorter the fetch, the weaker the waves.
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Cliff Erosion and Wave-Cut Platforms
Undercutting > Collapse > Retreat > Repeat
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Headlands and Bays
headlands made of hard, resistant rock. bays made of weaker, less resistant soft rock. bays eroded, headlands left sticking out and vulnerable to wave energy.
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Longshore Drift
waves approach beach at angle determined by prevailing winds > waves break and swash carries material up beach > swash dies, backwash and any sediment carried falls back down beach under gravity > material moves along coast in zig-zag route.
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Hard Engineering
hard approaches to management are expensive, short term and work against natural processes.
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Sea Wall
concrete structure curved to reflect wave energy back into sea.
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Groynes
wooden or concrete barriers built at right angles to beach to prevent longshore drift.
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Rip Rap
rocks put in place by coast to protect coast by absorbing wave energy and preventing erosion of coast.
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Revetments
wooden slated revetment that helps dissipate force of waves.
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Offshore Reefs
structures built out at sea to protect land.
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Soft Engineering
soft approaches to management are less expensive, longer term and sustainable as they work with natural processes.
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Beach Replenishment
adding sand taken from somewhere else, often offshore.
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Managed Retreat
people and activities are gradually moved back from the vulnerable areas of coast.
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Cliff Regrading
making the cliff face longer so that it is less steep.
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Bar
ridges of sand roughly parallel to the coast.
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Tombolo
ridges of sand and other material that link the mainland to the island a little way out to sea.
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Spit
narrow ridges of sand with one end attached to land and other reaching out across into the sea.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

when waves break and water rushes up the beach due to loss of energy.

Back

Swash

Card 3

Front

power to erode beaches; big waves which break with lots of energy and force; high frequency; high and steep with a short wavelength, and backwash is greater than swash, so beach is eroded.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

break on shore, depositing sediment on coastline; low frequency; weak, short, small waves with long wavelength; swash is greater than backwash, so deposits sediment on beach.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

water and air are forced into the cracks in the rocks. pressure causes the rocks to shatter.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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