# 2.1 Algorithms

Breaking down a problem into smaller 'sub-problems'
Decomposition
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A series of instructions that describes how to solve a specific problem
Algorithm
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Hiding the layers of complexity within a system, in order to focus on one specific layer of complexity
Abstraction
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Reaching a solution using a systematic approach, as opposed to jumping straight to the solution
Algorithmic Thinking
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A cross between English and a generic-looking programming language
Pseudocode
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A means of defining an algorithm using shapes and arrows
Flowchart
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Used to mark the start and end of a flowchart
Terminator
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Asks a question in a flowchart and each arrow leaving the shape must have one possible answer to the question written alongside it
Decision
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The part of a flowchart that contains a single instruction
Process
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When instructions in an algorithm need to be executed only once and in the order they are written
Sequence
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When one sequence of instructions but not another is executed
Selection
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When one or more instructions is executed more than once. Can also be known as repetition.
Iteration
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Putting data into an order (e.g numerical, alphabetical chronological, ascending, descending)
Sorting
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A search algorithm that begins at one end of a data structure, checking each data item in turn until the required item is found or the end of the structure is reached
Linear Search
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A search algorithm that begins in the middle of a data structure, eliminating half of the data with each pass. Only appropriate when data has already been sorted
Binary search
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

A series of instructions that describes how to solve a specific problem

Algorithm

### Card 3

#### Front

Hiding the layers of complexity within a system, in order to focus on one specific layer of complexity

### Card 4

#### Front

Reaching a solution using a systematic approach, as opposed to jumping straight to the solution

### Card 5

#### Front

A cross between English and a generic-looking programming language