2- The Particle Zoo

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What are hadrons?
Particles that interact through the strong interaction
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Give 3 examples of hadrons
Protons, neutrons, pions, kaons
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What are the 2 types of hadrons?
Mesons and baryons
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What are leptons?
Particles that don't interact through the strong interaction, they interact through the weak interaction
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What are baryons?
Protons and all other hadrons which eventually decay into a proton (either directly or indirectly)
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What are mesons?
Hadrons which do not/will never decay into a proton
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Give 2 examples of mesons
Kaons and pions
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Give 2 examples of baryons
Protons and neutrons
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What is the only stable baryon?
The proton (it doesn't decay)
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What charge can pions and kaons be?
Positively charged, negatively charged or uncharged
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What interaction do pions and kaons decay through?
The weak interaction
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What does a positively charged pion decay into?
An antimuon and neutrino
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What does a negatively charged pion decay into?
A muon and antineutrino
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What does an uncharged pion decay into?
2 high energy photons
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What has a rest mass greater than a pion but less than a proton?
Kaons
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Compared to pions, how fast do kaons decay?
More slowly
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What do kaons decay into?
Pions, muons and neutrinos
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Define strangeness
A property possessed by some hadrons that has been assigned in order to explain why some particle interactions take place more slowly than others or do not occur at all
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What was the first particle with strangeness to be discovered and what is its strangeness number?
The K+ meson and its strangeness number is +1
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Is strangeness reversed in an antiparticle?
Yes
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What is the baryon number of a proton?
+1, like all other baryons
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What is the baryon number of an antineutron?
-1, like all other antibaryons
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What is the baryon number of a muon?
0, like all other leptons
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What is the exchange particle of strong nuclear force?
A pion
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What happens in beta minus decay in terms of particles?
A neutron turns into a proton also producing an electron and antineutrino. It is caused by the weak interaction. Exchange particle= W- boson
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Which out of kaons and pions are heavier and are more unstable?
Kaons
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What happens in beta minus decay in terms of quarks?
A down quark turns into an up quark. Exchange particle= W- boson
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What happens in beta plus decay in terms of quarks?
An up quark turns into a down quark. Exchange particle= W+ boson
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What happens in beta plus decay in terms of particles?
A proton turns into a neutron which also releases a positron and electron neutrino. Exchange particle= W+ boson
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What are cosmic ray showers?
High-energy particles produced as a result of radiation from space interacting with molecules in the atmosphere
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What is the antiparticle of an uncharged pion?
Itself
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How are strange particles created?
Through the strong interaction
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What does the conservation of strangeness mean as a result?
Strange particles can only be created in pairs and in the strong interaction strangeness is always conserved
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Through what interaction do strange particles decay?
The weak interaction
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Is strangeness conserved in a weak interaction?
No- it can change by -1, 0, or +1
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Name 1 family of leptons
Electrons + neutrinos, or muons + neutrinos
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What is the charge of a muon?
-1
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What do muons decay into & through which interaction?
Electrons and anti-neutrinos & the weak interaction
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What do anti-muons decay into?
Positrons and neutrinos
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What is the lepton number and type of an anti-electron neutrino?
Number: -1, type: electron lepton
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What 4 properties must ALL interactions conserve?
Energy, charge, lepton number + type (electron or muon lepton number), and baryon number
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What must only strong interactions conserve?
Strangeness
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What are mesons made up of?
A quark-antiquark pair
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What quarks are in a proton?
up, up, down (uud)
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What quarks are in a neutron?
up, down, down (udd)
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What are quarks?
Fundamental particles which make up hadrons (baryons + mesons)
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Which leptons are stable?
Electrons and their neutrinos
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Do pions have strangeness?
No
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What quarks are pions made from?
Two from: up, down, anti-up, anti-down (u, d, u, d) - must be 1 quark and 1 anti-quark
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What quarks are kaons made from?
Two from: up, down, strange, anti-up, anti-down, anti-strange (u, d, s, u, d, s) - must be 1 quark and 1 anti-quark
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Why isn't it possible to get a quark on its own (quark confinement)?
If you blasted a proton with lots of energy for example, a sigle quark wouldn't be removed- the energy you supplied would just get changed into matter.
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What sort of interaction can cause a quark to change its character? Give an example of this.
Weak interaction, e.g. beta plus or beta minus decay
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What happens to quarks when they undergo strong interaction?
The number and types of quarks are conserved
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What types of particles undergo electromagnetic interaction?
Charged particles
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Give 3 examples of hadrons

Back

Protons, neutrons, pions, kaons

Card 3

Front

What are the 2 types of hadrons?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are leptons?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are baryons?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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