1. Measuring Biodiversity

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Define 'Biodiversity'
The range/variety of organisms in a specific area
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Define 'Species'
Group of organisms similar in appearance, anatomy, biochemistry and genetics - able to interbreed to produce fertile offspring
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Define 'Habitat'
The place where an organism lives
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What's 'habitat biodiversity'?
When organisms are adapted to live in a certain habitat, the range of habitats creates biodiversity.
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What's 'species biodiversity'?
In the same habitat, organisms have different adaptations to survive there - different species
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What's 'genetic biodiversity'?
Even within the same species, one individual differs from another - differences known as genetic biodiversity.
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Our estimate of Earth's biodiversity is probably incorrect because:
- New species constantly discovered - Evolution and speciation -Species becoming extinct before can be discovered
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Why do we sample?
- Study effect of climate change - See how environmental change affects biodiversity
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What is sampling?
- Gives estimate of biodiversity in an area (test a small area and scale it up to area in question) - Saves time and reduces impact on habitat
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Sampling rules? (Random)
RANDOMISE SAMPLES! (Construct a grid and use the random number generator as coordinates) - AVOIDS BIAS
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Sampling rules? (No of samples)
If making a comparison between two areas, make sure same number of samples taken!
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Sampling rules? (Season)
Make samples throughout the year!
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Sampling rules? (Technique)
Method MUST be consistent.
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Recording data
- If you know which species to expect you draw a table before the investigation (tally) - if the species aren't known bring an identification key
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Sampling plants (Quadrat)
Square with known dimensions, can measure richness and evenness and scale up to area investigated
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Sampling plants (Point frame)
When plants are too tall and thick to be measured with a quadrat
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Sampling plants (Transect)
The plants that touch the line in the habitat are recorded - mixing this with a quadrat is a BELT TRANSECT.
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Why must we sample animals differently?
They move and try to avoid you.
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Sampling animals (sweep netting)
Catches INSECTS - move through vegetation, removed contents on a white sheets (or pooter for flying insects)
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Sampling animals (pitfall trap)
Catches SMALL ANIMALS - water at the bottom stops from escaping
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Sampling animals (light trap)
Catches FLYING INSECTS - UV light attracts them
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Sampling animals (tullgren funnel)
Catches INSECTS - put soil sample on cause, heat with bulb, animals fall in a jar
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Mark and recapture?
Capture sample, mark them (C1), release, recapture, mark as C2, apart from those from C1 which are now C3
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Species richness
Number of species in an area
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Species evenness
Relative abundance of species in an area
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Why is S.B.I good?
Considers both richness AND evenness! 1 having high biodiversity and 0 having low.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define 'Species'

Back

Group of organisms similar in appearance, anatomy, biochemistry and genetics - able to interbreed to produce fertile offspring

Card 3

Front

Define 'Habitat'

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What's 'habitat biodiversity'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What's 'species biodiversity'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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