1940's/1950's Racism

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What is the date of the Cold War?
1945 to 1990
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Where did the Cold War start?
Europe
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Define a Red Scare
A heightened fear of communism within the USA
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What was the 'soviet block'?
The countries nearest to Russia (Eastern Europe) which were taken over by Russia so they couldn't become independent - USSR kept tanks, soldiers etc. in these countries
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What was the Iron Curtain?
The imaginary line blocking capitalism from communism
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Generally, who was the Cold War between?
Capitalism and Communism
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What was the domino theory?
The belief that 1 by 1 the countries (surrounding Russia) would turn communist
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When was the Greek Civil War?
1946
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What was the word used to describe how the US would stop communism spreading?
"Containment"
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How would the USA 'contain' communism?
Military support to fighting communism and financial aid
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What acts helped to 'contain' communism?
The Truman Doctrine (military support) and the Marshall Plan (financial aid)
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What was the Berlin Airlift?
When the US flew 2000 planes into West Berlin to keep capitalism alive - flying in foods and medicines etc. for 1 year
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Which area of Berlin was capitalist?
West Berlin
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How many people between the years 1947 and 1961 moved from East Berlin to West Berlin?
3 million
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Why did people want to move to West Berlin?
For a better, richer life
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When did Russia get a nuclear bomb?
1949
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When did the US get a nuclear bomb?
1945
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When was NATO?
1949
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When did China turn communist?
1949
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When/Why did the Cold War spread to Asia?
1949 - when China turned Communist
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When was the Korean war?
1950-3
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Which area of Korea supported capitalism?
South Korea
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List the reasons why there was a 2nd Red Scare
Post war changes / Role of individuals / Internal suspicions / Traditional Intolerance / Reaction to New Deal / Onset of Cold War
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Who was the most significant individual during this time?
McCarthy
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When did McCarthy give his speech?
1950
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What did McCarthy become known as?
Witch-finder General
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Why was Reagan important during this time?
He was a 'friendly witness' who pointed out communists in Hollywood
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What is the term used to describe the evidence of secret communists in the USA?
Reds under the bed
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Why was the Marshall Plan significant?
It was the USA's attempt to control Europe through money / Trade with US / Worked - no more countries turned communist
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What aspects of the New Deal were considered to be socialist/communist?
TVA - state intervention / NRA - 556 codes / SSA - welfare reforms
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Who believed in traditional intolerance?
Chafe
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What were the post-war changes?
Teenagers / TV / Suburban growth / War to mixed-economy / Technology / Electronics
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What effect did the post-war changes have on Americans in terms of racism?
They became more racist - couldn't cope with the changes so wanted scape goats and blamed the communists
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What was the name of the first internal suspicion?
The Amerasia Incident
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When was the Amerasia Incident?
1945
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What was the Amerasia Incident?
Amerasia was a magazine and it began to publish print information (from the state department) for communists/about the USA, suggested that there therefore was a mole in the State Department
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When was the Canadian Spy Ring?
1946
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What was the Canadian Spy Ring?
When Canadian spies were arrested for passing US secrets to the Russians
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Give an example of a US's secret that was being passed to the Russians?
Information about nuclear warfare
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When were "Federal Loyalty Bonds" established?
1947
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What were the Federal Loyalty Bonds?
When anyone working for the govt (e.g. teachers, police) had to take an oath swearing that they weren't communist / Many were forced to resign / Could be sacked if there was evidence against you
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How many people were forced to resign after the establishment of Federal Loyalty Bonds?
3000
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How many people were directly fired after the establishment of Federal Loyalty Bonds?
300
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Name 3 groups that were particularly attacked/affected by the Federal Loyalty Bonds
Immigrants, Jews, homosexuals
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Why did teachers have to take oaths?
They could brainwash/indoctrinate children
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What does HUAC stand for?
House of Un-American Activities Committee
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When was HUAC set up?
1938 - to find RW (German) extremism / Resurfaced in 1947 - focussed on LW extremism
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What did HUAC do?
Investigated Hollywood
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Why did HUAC 'resurface' in 1947?
Decided that communism was taking over Hollywood
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Why was it important that famous people in Hollywood weren't communist?
Hollywood was a symbol of the USA - they could spread communist messages into films to brainwash the world
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Who was the Head of the FBI?
J Edgar Hoover
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Who were the 'friendly witnesses'?
People in Hollywood who were to help find the communists
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How many 'friendly witnesses' were there?
41
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Who were the 2 most famous 'friendly witnesses'?
Ronald Reagan and Walt Disney
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Why did 'friendly witnesses' agree to search for communists?
They could take their jobs
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How many names of potential Hollywood communists were called to give evidence?
19
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How many potential Hollywood communists refused to give evidence?
10
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What did the potential Hollywood communists who refused to give evidence known as?
The Hollywood Ten
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What was another effect of the search for communists in Hollywood?
100s were blacklisted from Hollywood
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Name 3 people blacklisted from Hollywood
Charlie Chaplin (Jewish) / Orson Welles / Arthur Miller
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Who couldn't you make a film about?
Robin Hood
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Who was sentenced to 5 years in prison?
Alger Hiss
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When was Alger Hiss sentenced to 5 years in prison?
1948
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Why was Alger Hiss sentenced to 5 years in prison?
He worked in the State Dept. and hid information in pumpkins and was accused of passing this information to the Russians
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Why was 1949 a particularly significant year?
China turned communist / USSR gets atomic bomb
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When was the 'McCarren Internal Security Act'?
1950
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What was the 'McCarren Internal Security Act'?
The act that cracked down on communism
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What were the effects of the 'McCarren Internal Security Act'?
Communists denied a passport (can't go to Russia and back) / Foreign communists deported / In a national emergency, suspected communists could be placed in concentration camps
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Who were the married New York couple killed in 1950?
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
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Why were Ethel and Julius Rosenberg killed?
Accused of giving US atomic secrets to the Russians
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Why are Ethel and Julius Rosenberg important?
They were the 1st victims of the witch hunt
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Where was McCarthy's 1st famous speech?
Virginia
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Why did McCarthy's first speech sweep across America in a day?
Fear: Russia now had nuclear bomb / China turned communist / Korean war started (evidence of domino theory) / Cold War going badly for the US
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What was McCarthy's 1st claim?
That there was a list of 205 communists in the US State Department
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What were the numbers of communists that McCarthy gave?
205 / 81 / 57 / "lots"
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Why could McCarthy be influential?
Supported by J Edgar Hoover (FBI Head) and the Catholic Church
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Why did the Catholic Church oppose communism?
'Das Kapital' (Communist Bible) said "religion in the opium of the masses"
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Who investigated McCarthy's claim?
The Tydings Committee
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What was the conclusion of the Tydings Committee on McCarthy?
They said he was a fraud/ a bully/ talking rubbish
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When did McCarthy 'fall from power'?
1954
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Why did McCarthy 'fall from power'?
He said the army was full of communists (no evidence) / Less tension in the Cold War (Stalin's death, Korean war ended)
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Why was there less tension in the Cold War by 1954?
Stalin had died in 1953 / Korean war had ended in 1953 (less fear of communism taking hold in Asia)
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When did McCarthy die?
1957
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Where was McCarthy senator of?
Wisconsin
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What is significant about McCarthy?
For 3 years he had been the most powerful man in America
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When was the McCarran-Walter Immigration and Nationality Act?
1952
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What was the McCarran-Walter Immigration and Nationality Act?
Maintained the immigration quota system / Severely restricted immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe / Gave the Justice Dept. the power to exclude or deport communist-sympathizers
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How did McCarthy affect politics?
Supported Eisenhower and helped bring about his victory in 1952
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When was the Communist Control Act?
1954
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What was the Communist Control Act?
It banned any communist from holding office in any labour organisation
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Who suffered the most because of McCarthy?
The government - the State Dept. lost hundreds of staff / During the Vietnam war, very poor decisions were made because people who knew a lot about Vietnam and Asia had been sacked from the govt.
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Who said that the State Dept. lost hundreds of staff?
Brogan
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List the reasons why McCarthy was significant
McCarran Internal Security Act / McCarran-Walter Immigration and Nationality Act / Eisenhower's victory / 100s lost jobs or were blacklisted from Hollywood / Fear / Communist Control Act / Loss of govt. workers (bad during Vietnam war)
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List the reasons why McCarthy was not significant
Ended when he disappeared / Not enshrined into society
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How did individual state governments try to help fight communism?
They passed anti-subversion laws - e.g. Massachusetts
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Give an example of an anti-subversion law passed by a state govt
Massachussetts - illegal to allow a communist to hire your room for a meeting
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Card 2

Front

Where did the Cold War start?

Back

Europe

Card 3

Front

Define a Red Scare

Back

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Card 4

Front

What was the 'soviet block'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the Iron Curtain?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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