1920's Racism

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List the reasons why racism increased in the 1920's
Traditional intolerance / Scientific racists / Govt. policies / Immigration / Russian Revolution / KKK / WWI
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Who believed in traditional intolerance?
The historian: (William) Chafe
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When did traditional intolerance occur?
At times of great social change
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What were these times of great social change called?
Seasonal allergies
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What were the social changes in the 1920's?
Women's rights (the vote and the way they dressed), technologies, no longer war, immigrants, economic boom, cars
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Who was the most famous scientific racist?
Madison Grant
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What was the name of Madison Grant's book?
The Passing of the Great Race
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Name 2 reasons why Madison Grant was influential
Personal friend of Coolidge / He was the President of the Immigration Restriction League
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When did Madison Grant become the President of the Immigration Restriction League?
1922
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What did Madison Grant do as President of the Immigration Restriction League?
Provided the statistics for the 1924 National Origins Act - setting the quota on the number of European immigrants allowed to enter the country each year
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What did someone refer to Madison Grant's book? Who was this person?
Stephen Jay - "the most influential tract of scientific racism"
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Outline Grant's beliefs
He believed that the stronger Aryan race would eventually cause weaker races to die out - this was his interpretation of Darwin's Theory of Evolution
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Why was the concept of scientific racism impressive?
The scientific evidence/terminology impressed the public easily
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Give a quote from Coolidge
"America must be kept American"
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What are WASPs?
White anglo-saxon Protestants
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Why were southern/eastern Europeans an issue?
Culturally different, job competition, language barrier, may be Communist, didn't integrate
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How many immigrants arrived in the US between 1900 to 1909?
8 million
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What was America traditionally referred to as and by whom?
Crevecoeur - The Melting Pot
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When was the Russian revolution?
October 1917
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When were the Palmer raids?
1919
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Why did the Palmer raids occur?
They tried to blow up Palmer's house
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Who was Palmer?
Mitchell Palmer - The Attorney General
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When was Wall Street attacked?
1920
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Why did the Communists/Anarchists attack Wall Street?
Because it was the centre of Capitalism
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How many members did the KKK have at its peak?
1/20 Americans / 5 million
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Who was the head of the KKK?
DC Stevenson
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What was DC Stevenson referred to as?
"The law in Indiana"
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Which 3 groups are linked to discontent after WWI?
African Americans, Germans and Italians
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What did African Americans do during WWI?
Migrate South to North for jobs
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What was banned in America?
Beethoven
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What was renamed in America?
Sauerkraut was renamed "liberty cabbage"
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What was the name of the Italian newspaper?
Cronaca Sovverisiva - The Subversive Chronicles
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Why was Cronaca Sovverisiva important?
Had allegedly 5'000 subscriptions, contributed to by Sacco and Vanzetti,
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When was Cronaca Sovverisiva forcedly shut down?
July 1918
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When was the KKK 'reborn'?
1915
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What did the KKK refer African Americans to as?
Beasts
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Which 3 areas of the USA did the KKK spread to?
South, west and mid-west
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Describe the KKK's membership scheme
$10 to join (accessible to all/ordinary Americans), buy hat and robe, initiation ceremony
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How many members were there in the KKK in 1920 and 1925?
100'000 to 5 million (1/20 Americans)
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What were the KKK opposed to?
African Americans, Catholics, Jews, Communists, criminals, trade unionists
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Why was the KKK able to be influential (in terms of who was a member)?
Judges, senators, mayors, police
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Why was DC Stevenson particularly powerful?
He was the 'law in Indiana' / Talk of him becoming the next President
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How many people were in the KKK by 1930?
200'000 - 250'000
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Why did the KKK collapse?
Not firmly embedded in society, DC Stevenson on trial for 2nd degree murder, Evans turned it into a social club, financially corrupt leaders, anti-immigration acts brought in by govt. --> no raison d'etre
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Who was the 2nd leader of the KKK?
Hiram Evans
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List the reasons why it can be said that the KKK had little impact on US society
Millions not members / Confined to 3 areas - 40% of members in 3 states / Not in cities / Only rural areas / Sudden collapse in 1925 / Corrupt leadership / No impact on politics
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When did the KKK collapse?
1925
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What statistic can you say about the distribution of the KKK?
Only south, west and mid-west / 40% of members in 3 states = Indiana, Ohio and Illinois
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Where were the 3 states where 40% of the KKK's members were?
Indiana, Ohio and Illinois
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Which classes did members of the KKK tend to be in?
Middle and working classes
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The governors of which states were members of the KKK?
Maine, Ohio, Colorado and Louisiana
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How many lynchings were there in the 1920's?
600
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What act did the KKK enforce?
Prohibition
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How did the KKK (potentially) have an impact on politics/elections?
Helped bring about immigration acts / Forced Al Smith to step down from 1924 Democrat candidate election because he was Catholic
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Define the Red Scare
A deep fear of extreme left wing ideologies spreading to the USA
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List the reasons why there was a Red Scare
Russian revolution / Strikes / Attacks and violence / Immigration
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Why did the Russian revolution help to bring about the Red Scare?
Comintern began to spread communism around the world, fears that it would reach the USA
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In what years were there lots of strikes?
1919 and 1920
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How many people were on strike in 1919?
4 million
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Why were strikes an issue?
Workers were disrupting the capitalist system --> nothing was being produced
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How long did the Boston police strike last?
2 days
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Why was there a Boston police strike?
They earned only $20 a week and had to buy their own uniform
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How/by whom was the strike ended?
Coolidge - recruited new police
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Name 3 left wing attacks
Palmer raids, attack on Wall Street, tried to assassinate Rockefeller
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Why did the anarchists attempt to assassinate Rockefeller?
He was the next best to Ford
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How many people were deported during the Palmer raids?
556
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Who were Sacco and Vanzetti?
Italian immigrants, anarchists, they supported strikes, they had criminal records
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What did Sacco and Vanzetti supposedly do to get arrested?
Robbed $15,000 and killed 2 people
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When were Sacco and Vanzetti found guilty/killed?
1929
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Who found Sacco and Vanzetti guilty?
Judge Theyer
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Why did Judge Theyer find Sacco and Vanzetti guilty even though there was only flimsy evidence against them?
He didn't like immigrants
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What did Judge Theyer refer to Sacco and Vanzetti as?
"Those anarchist bastards"
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What was the name of the anti-immigration act in 1917?
The Immigration Act
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List the anti-immigration acts in chronological order
Immigration Act, Emergency Quota Act, National Origins Act, Johnson-Reed Immigration Act
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What did the Immigration Act in 1917 do?
Barred non-English speaking immigrants
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What was the name of the anti-immigration act in 1921?
Emergency Quota Act
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What did the Emergency Quota Act in 1921 do?
Reduces immigration from southern and eastern Europe
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What was the name of the 2 anti-immigration acts in 1924?
National Origins Act and the Johnson-Reed Immigration Act
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What did the National Origins Act do?
Reduces the southern and eastern European quota to 2% of the 1890 census
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What census did the National Origins Act focus on?
1890
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What did the Johnson-Reed Immigration Act do?
Banned Japanese immigrants (other Asian immigrants had been previously banned)
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By 1929, what percentage of immigrants were from north/west Europe?
85%
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How many immigrants per year were allowed in by 1929?
150'000
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Whist immigration from southern and eastern Europe decreased, immigration from where actually increased?
Latin and Central America
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By 1930, how many Mexicans lived in the USA?
2 million
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How many Mexicans lived in California?
360'000
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When was the original KKK set up?
1865 - after the Civil War and the abolition of slavery
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How many members did the KKK have in 1920?
100'000
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How did you pay your $10 to join the KKK?
By mail order catalogue
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What can you describe the rapidly increasing KKK membership as?
The domino effect
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How many reports of lynchings were there between 1919 and 1929?
350
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Why could someone be lynched?
Only needed a minor offence
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Why could African Americans only do little against the KKK?
For fear of being prosecuted and killed
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How many African Americans migrated north during WWI and where did they work?
500'000 - in munitions factories
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How many citizens did Palmer round up who were suspected of Communist or Anarchist ideas?
6000
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What new city was created by Italian immigrants and where was it?
'Little Italy' in New York
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How many immigrants arrived in the 2nd decade of the 20th century?
6 million
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Why did the immigrants not add to the Melting Pot?
They were unskilled, illiterate, didn't integrate, language barrier
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Who believed in traditional intolerance?

Back

The historian: (William) Chafe

Card 3

Front

When did traditional intolerance occur?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What were these times of great social change called?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What were the social changes in the 1920's?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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