1848-9 Revolutions (last few)

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  • Created by: Abigail
  • Created on: 25-10-13 10:11
What was going so well for Charles Albert?
His army defeated the Austrians end of May 1848
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What was wrong with the Papal States at this time?
The Pope's commander had disobeyed orders and left with is army to joing Albert's
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Why did this cause problems for the Pope and how was it resolved?
The Pope didn't have a problem with Austria and wanted to remain neutral, so he issued an allocution to make that clear
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What else did this allocution say?
He wasn't interested anymore in becoming head of a federation or offering the Church's support in a united Italy. He turned his back on liberalism too
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Why was this a problem for so many Italians?
Because the vast majority were Catolics and the lost support of Catholicism would result in bad consequences
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Who returned from Austria June 1848? Who with?
Radetzky and reinforcements
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Where was Charles Albert's army defeated?
At Custoza
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What were the result of this defeat?
An armistice was signed and Piedmont were forced to leave Lombardy in the hands of Austria
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Who came back to Italy at this point?
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Why did the Pope flee Rome?
Rioting started because his unpopular chief minister was murdered
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Who was the cheif minister?
Count Pellegrino Rossi
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Where did the Pope take refuge?
In Naples
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The government he left behind introduced a series of reforms, what were they?
An abolishment of the grinding corn tax; public building work for unemployed; proposed holding of a constituente
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What's a constituente?
A meeting in Rome with representatives from all over Italy
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What was settled during the first meeting? When was it?
It was held February 1849, they proclaimed that the Pope's temporal power was at an end plus there was the establishment of the Roman Republic
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Mazzini was voted the head of what?
The triumvirate
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What was the triumvirate?
A governing body of three men
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How long was Mazzini in power for?
100 days
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What were some of the 'tough difficulties' he was in?
rising unemployment and enemies spreading rumours about him being cruel to his civilians
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But, he governed fairly. What were some of the things he introduced?
Abolished death penalty; taxation reformed to assist the poor; about a dozen new newspapers set up; Catholicism official religion
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The Pope became angry, why? And what did he do?
Because of what was happening in Rome. He appealed to France, Spain and Naples to help him again power again
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Who came to the Pope's aid and how did they go about it?
France did, 20,000 soldiers were sent to destroy the Roman Republic
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The city fell, when?
June 1849
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The Pope returned later on, when?
Afternoon 12th April 1850
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When he came back, what did he bring with him?
A repressive rule, several reinstatements such as the guillotine. He officially turned his back on liberalism now
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What happened to Venetia?
They were also declared a republic. Fought bravely against the Austrians. Outbreak of Cholera caused misery to already starving citizens. Driven by hunger & disease, they surrendered to Austria
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Charles Albert had apparently recovered from the terrors of defeat at which battle?
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Which state was he distressed for leaving?
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Albert decided to re-enter the war, when? And what did some people believe the cause of this was?
March 1849, people thought he was getting revenge
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Who did he think would support him if he re-entered the war?
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Within a month, what happened? Where?
He was severely defeated, Battle of Novara
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What was Albert's next move?
He was fed up so he abdicated in favour of his son, Victor Emmanuel II
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Early 1848, the leader of Tuscany did what? Who was he?
Grand Duke granted a constitution
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After learning about Metternich's resignation, what did the Tuscan government do?
Form a small army to fight Austrians
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Why did workers become annoyed?
Their pay and working conditions
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What happened January 1849 with the Grand Duke?
He fled to Naples after having enough
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BUT, following the defeat of Albert at Novara, what happened?
Austria swept through Tuscany, destroyed revolts & restored Duke to throne
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Lastly, what happened in Parma & Modena?
The rulers fled from revolutions but soon restored by Austria
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What was wrong with the Papal States at this time?


The Pope's commander had disobeyed orders and left with is army to joing Albert's

Card 3


Why did this cause problems for the Pope and how was it resolved?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What else did this allocution say?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Why was this a problem for so many Italians?


Preview of the front of card 5
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